Monday, 15 January 2018

Grand Officers of the Crown

Grand Aumôner

Area: headed the ecclesiastical household

Alphonse Louis du Plessis de Richelieu, Cardinal and Archbishop of Aix
Tenure: 1632-1653

Image illustrative de l'article Alphonse-Louis du Plessis de Richelieu
Alphose Louis

Antoine Barberini, Cardinal and Archbishop-Duc de Reims
Tenure: 1653-1671

His family had fled to France following accusations of greed - and probably more palpable charges - where they were received at the French court.

Image illustrative de l'article Antonio Barberini (1607-1671)
Antoine Barberini

Emmanuel Theodore de La Tour de Bouillon, Cardinal and Bishop of Ostie
Tenure: 1671-1700

Emmanuel Theodore officiated two royal weddings of great importance: that of Marie-Louise d'Orléans to the king of Spain as well as that of the Grand Dauphin to Marie Anne Victoire of Bavaria. Once the Duc d'Anjou was chosen as the next king of Spain, it was he who ordained the king.

Image illustrative de l'article Emmanuel-Théodose de La Tour d'Auvergne (1643-1715)
Emmanuel Theodore

Pierre du Cambout de Coislin, Cardinal and Bishop of Orléans
Tenure: 1700-1706

Pierre was unexpectedly named cardinal in 1697 which permitted him to sit in the conclave of 1700.

Image illustrative de l'article Pierre du Cambout de Coislin

Toussaint de Forbin de Janson, Cardinal and Bishop-Comte de Beauvais
Tenure: 1706-1713

Louis XIV quickly realized that Toussaint had a flair for diplomacy. Amongst other tasks he was sent to Tuscany to attempt to reconcile the Duke with his French wife, Marguerite Louise d'Orléans.

Billedresultat for Toussaint de Forbin-Janson

Armand Gaston Maximilien de Rohan-Soubise, Cardinal and Bishop-Prince de Strasbourg
Tenure: 1713- 1742

A great lover of architecture he would build some splendid palaces including an episcopal palace in Strasbourg.

Image illustrative de l'article Armand-Gaston-Maximilien de Rohan
Armand Gaston Maximilien

Frédéric Jérôme de La Rochefoucauld, Cardinal-Archbishop de Bourges
Tenure: 1742-1745

Frédéric was greatly valued by Louis XV; by 1740 he was recorded as giving the king advice on "every imaginable topic".

Billedresultat for Frédéric Jérôme de La Rochefoucauld
Frédéric Jérôme

Armand de Rohan-Soubise, Cardinal-Bishop-Prince de Strasbourg
Tenure: 1745-1748

He was a relative of the previous Grand Aumônier as well as the brother of the Prince de Soubise.

Image illustrative de l'article Armand de Rohan-Soubise
Armand de Rohan-Soubise

Nicolas de Saulx-Tavannes, Cardinal and Bishop-Comte de Châlons
Tenure: 1748-1760

He assisted in the coronation of Louis XV as well as officiating the marriage between Louis d'Orléans and Augusta Maria of Baden. He would also become the first chaplain to Marie Leszczynska.

Image illustrative de l'article Nicolas de Saulx-Tavannes
Nicolas de Saulx-Tavannes

Charles Antoine de La Roche-Aymon, Cardinal and Duc de Reims
Tenure: 1760-1777

It was Charles Antoine who both administered the last rites to Louis XV and married Louis Auguste to Marie Antoinette.

Image illustrative de l'article Charles Antoine de La Roche-Aymon
Charles Antoine

Louis René Edouard de Rohan-Guéménée, Bishop-Prince de Strasbourg
Tenure: 1777-1786

Louis René lost his post after the Affair of the Diamond Necklace where he had done his utmost to incriminate the queen.

Louis René Edouard

Louis Joseph de Montmorency-Laval, Cardinal and Bishop-Prince de Metz
Tenure: 1786-1792

He emigrated during the revolution after having make his opposition to the new constitution clear.

Image illustrative de l'article Louis-Joseph de Montmorency-Laval

Grand Écuyers 

Area: ran the royal stables and was therefore in charge of keeping the horses, carriages etc.

Henri Coiffier de Ruzé d'Effiat, Marquis de Cinq-Mars
Tenure: 1639-1642

Executed for conspiring against Cardinal Richelieu when Henri's mail was intercepted.

Description de cette image, également commentée ci-après
Henri Coiffier

Henri de Lorraine, Comte d'Harcourt
Tenure:  1643-1658

During the Fronde he remained loyal to Anne of Austria; nevertheless, he fell out with Cardinal Mazarin and decided to retire to Alsace.

Série de portraits chez Odieuvre, impression 1744
Henri de Lorraine

Louis de Lorraine, Comte d'Armagnac
Tenure: 1666-1677

His younger brother was the infamous Chevalier de Lorraine, lover of Philippe d'Orléans.

Louis of Lorraine, Count of Armagnac (1641-1718) by Alexandre Debacq (Versailles).jpg
Louis de Lorraine

Henri de Lorraine, Comte de Brionne
Tenure:  1677-1713

Henri was sent to retrieve Marie Adélaide of Savoy when she arrived at the French border in 1696 for her wedding to the Duc de Bourgogne.

Henri de Lorraine, Count of Brionne (1661-1713).jpg
Henri de Lorraine

Charles de Lorraine, Comte d'Armagnac
Tenure: 1718-1751

He married Françoise Adélaide de Noailles who was the niece of Madame de Maintenon.

Louis-Charles de Lorraine, Comte de Brionne
Tenure: 1751-1761

Louis-Charles married thrice and was also created Governor of Anjou.

Engraving of Louis de Lorraine, Prince of Lambesc (1725-1761).jpg

Charles-Eugène de Lorraine, Prince de Lambesc
Tenure:  1761-1791

When the Tuileries was stormed he was amongst those who defended it in vain; he would emigrate were he fought to restore the monarchy. He would never return to France although he was given back his lands and titles during the restoration.

Prince de Lambesc.jpg

Grand Fauconniers

Area: in charge of hunting by falconry 

Claude de Lorraine, Duc de Chevreuse
Tenure: 1622-1643

His wife, Marie de Rohan,  was deeply involved in court intrigues but Claude managed to stay clear of any stain associated with such activities.

Claude de Lorraine

Louis-Charles d'Albert de Luynes, Duc de Luynes
Tenure: 1643-1650

Louis-Charles had quite a duality of talents. On one hand he was a skilled soldier who participated in the campaign of Arras; on the other he was the author of several pieces on moral and piety.


Nicolas Dauvet, Comte Desmarets
Tenure: 1650-1666

He actually had the title of Marquis de Saint-Phale as well but was generally known by his title of count.

Alexis-François Dauvet, Comte Desmarets
Tenure: 1672-1688

He served as Lieutenant-General as well as governor of Anjou.

François Dauvet, Comte Desmarets
Tenure: 1688-1717

Louis-François Dauvet, Marquis de Desmarets
Tenure: 1717-1748

Inherited the office from his father and was elevated to the rank of Marquis as well.

Louis César de La Baume Le Blanc, Duc de La Vallière
Tenure:  1748-1762

Nephew of Madame de La Vallière, he set himself up in the  Château de Champs-sur-Marne where he played host to Voltaire, Diderot and the like.

Portrait par Charles-Nicolas Cochin
Louis César

Louis-Gaucher de Châtillon, Duc de Châtillon
Tenure: 1762

Born at Versailles he would later go on to serve as Lieutenant-General as well as colonel of a grenadier corps.

Billedresultat for Louis-Gaucher de Châtillon

Louis César de La Baume Le Blanc, Duc de La Vallière (again)
Tenure: 1762-1780

Jules-César de Crémeaux, Marquis d'Entragues
Tenure: 1780

He served as a cavalry captain in the Condé-regiment

Joseph-Hyacinthe de Rigaud, Comte de Vaudreuil
Tenure: 1780-1791

He was a great favourite of Marie Antoinette as well as the Comte de Provence. Once the revolution broke out he followed the future Charles X into exile.

Comte de Vaudreuil2.jpg

Grand Louvetiers

Area: directed the hunts of wolfs and boars

Claude de Rovroy, Duc de Saint-Simon
Tenure: 1636-1643

Initially he was a favourite of Louis XIII but fell out with the king after having sided with the Baron de Saint-Léger.

Claude de Rovroy

Henri II de Bourbon-Condé, Prince de Condé
Tenure:  1643-1646

He was imprisoned by Cardinal Richelieu but was later released by the king thanks to the efforts of the Duc de Luynes. Following this he partook in several military campaigns.

Portrait par un peintre anonyme, Musée Condé, Château de Chantilly
Henri II

Charles de Bailleul, Seigneur du Perray
Tenure: 1646-1651

Nicolas de Bailleul, Seigneur
Tenure: 1651-1655

François-Gaspard de Montmorin, Marquis de Saint-Herem
Tenure: 1655-1684

He served Henri IV where he defended the village of Sabazat.

Michel Sublet, Marquis d'Heudicourt
Tenure: 1684-1718

He was on good terms with the king during his entire life - his wife, Bonne de Pons, was a brief mistress of the monarch.

Pons-Auguste Sublet, Marquis d'Heudicourt
Tenure: 1718-1737

Antonin-Armand de Belsunze, Comte de Castelmoron
Tenure: 1737-1741

He inherited the office after his father-in-law, the Marquis d'Heudicourt.

Agésilas-Gaston de Grossoles, Marquis de Flamarens
Tenure: 1741-1753

In the army he held the rank of maître-de-camp; he was the first of his family to be elevated to the rank of Marquis.

Emmanuel-François de Grossoles, Comte de Flamarens
Tenure: 1753-1780

During the Seven Years' War he led the regiment of the queen's dragoons as maître-de-camp.

Joseph-Louis-Bernard de Cléron, Comte d'Haussonville
Tenure: 1780-1791

He was involved in the military campaigns that wreaked havoc on the shores of Newfoundland in 1762. He was taken prisoner by the British following a disastrous battle in September.

Grand Maîtres of Ceremony

Area: responsible for the ceremonies performed at court

Claude Pot, Seigneur de Rhodes
Tenure: 1622-1642

Henri Pot, Seigneur de Rhodes
Tenure: 1642-1666

Charles Pot, Marquis de Rhodes
Tenure: 1666-1684

Elevated to the rank of Marquis.

Jules-Armand Colbert, Marquis de Blainville
Tenure: 1684-1701

He was the fourth son of the infamous minister Colbert and served in the Netherlands under the command of the young Duc de Bourgogne.

Thomas de Dreux-Brézé, Marquis de Dreux-Brézé
Tenure: 1701-1749

He was promoted from lieutenant of the guard to brigadier to Lieutenant General of the king's army.

Michel de Dreux, Marquis de Dreux-Brézé
Tenure:  1749-1754

Like his father, he served in the army. Amongst others he fought under Maurice de Saxe during the Seven Years' War.

Joachim de Dreux, Marquis de Dreux-Brézé
Tenure: 1755-1781

The younger brother of Michel, he was marèchal-de-camp for a naval regiment. Later, he was promoted to Lieutenant General.

En Grand maître des cérémonies, en 1775 pour le sacre de Louis XVI, gravure Charles Emmanuel Patas.
At the coronation of Louis XVI

Henri-Évrad de Dreux, Marquis de Dreux-Brézé
Tenure: 1781-1792

His military career was quite short since he was soon called upon to partake in the General Assembly of 1789.

Billedresultat for Henri-Évrard de Dreux-Brézé

Grand Maîtres of the King's Wardrobe

Area: purchasing and keeping the king's clothing as well as every fabric used in royal ceremony in pristine order.

Henri Coiffier de Ruzé d'Effiat, Marquis de Cinq-Mars
Tenure: 1639-?

Description de cette image, également commentée ci-après
Henri Coiffier

Jean Antoine de Pardaillan de Gondrin, Marquis de Montespan
Tenure: ?-1644

Jean married Marie-Anne de Saint-Lary but they had no children. He was maître-de-camp of the regiment of Bourgogne.

François de Paule de Clermont, Marquis de Montglat
Tenure: 1644-1653

He fought as maître-de-camp but got a head-injury while his regiment was stationed at La Bassé. After this, the king offered him this recently vacated position.

Billedresultat for François de Paule de Clermont

Charles Maximilien de Belleforière, Marquis de Soyécourt
Tenure: 1653-1656

Charles Maximilien

Jacques-Guy de Chaumont Quitry, Marquis de Quitry
Tenure: 1656-1672

François VII de La Rochefoucauld, Duc de La Rochefoucauld
Tenure: 1672-1679

He distinguished himself in the service of Louis XIV; besides this title he also held that of Grand Veneur de France.

Copie d'un portrait de François VII de la Rochefoucauld
François VII

François VIII de La Rochefoucauld, Duc de La Rochefoucauld
Tenure: 1679-1718

The king granted him his own dukedom in 1679 when he was named as the first Duc de La Roche-Guyon. He fought in Flanders where he was seriously wounded but recovered and was made Marèchal de camp for his efforts.

Billedresultat for François VIII de La Rochefoucauld,
François VIII

Alexandre-François de La Rochefoucauld, Duc de La Rochefoucauld
Tenure: 1718-1758

François-Armand de La Rochefoucauld de Roye, Duc d'Estissac
Tenure: 1758-1783

François XII de La Rochefoucauld, Duc de Liancourt
Tenure: 1783-1791

Grand Maréchal des Logis

Area: arranged the lodgings of not only the king but also his court and the accompanying guards. This particular office was primarily relevant prior to Louis XIV settling at Versailles since the court would move between the royal residences.

This office belonged to the family of de Baume de Suze throughout the entire era of Versailles. Therefore, it was held by the Comte or the Marquis de Suze.

Grand Prévôt

Area: controlled the police force at court and handled discipline amongst the guards

Georges de Monchy, Marquis d'Hocquincourt
Tenure: 1630-1642

Besides this office, he also held that of Grand Maître d'Hôtel of the Queen and Lieutenant-General in the king's army.

Charles de Monchy, Marquis d'Hocquincourt
Tenure: 1642-1643

He served Louis XIII in various campaigns in Spain; however, following the Fronde he went to Spain where he was entrusted with the defense of Dunkirk. He died doing so.

Image illustrative de l'article Charles de Monchy d'Hocquincourt
Charles de Monchy

Jean du Bouchet, Marquis de Sourches
Tenure: 1643-1677

He was elevated from Baron de Sourches to Marquis in 1652.

François-Louis du Bouchet, Marquis de Sourches
Tenure: 1677-1714

Held four governorships: those of Maine, Perches, Mans and Laval. He also served as colonel in the regiment of Sourches.

Louis du Bouchet, Marquis de Sourches
Tenure: 1714-1746

He inherited the governorships of Maine and Perches.

Louis II du Bouchet, Marquis de Sourches
Tenure: 1746-1788

At the age of eight years he was ensured that he would inherit the office of Grand Prévôt.

Charles du Bouchet de Sourches, Marquis de Tourzel
Tenure: 1788-1792

Grand Veneurs

Area: directed the royal hunts, primarily the stag hunts

Hercule de Rohan, Duc de Montbazon
Tenure: 1602-1643

He had been a close friend of Henri IV and had ridden in the same carriage as the king when he was assassinated.

Hercule de Rohan (1568-1654). Engraving by Pierre Daret (1610 - 1675).jpg
Hercule de Rohan

Henri II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé
Tenure: 1643-1646

For a while, Henri II was the heir presumptive to the throne when Henri IV had no immediate heirs. Later, he would be third in line to the throne following immediately behind Gaston d'Orléans and Louis XIV.

Henri II de Bourbon-Condé

Louis VIII de Rohan, Duc de Montbazon
Tenure:  1654-1656

Louis actually gained his title of Prince de Guéméné through his marriage to Anne de Rohan. He would later inherit the dukedom of Montbazon.

Louis VIII de Rohan, 3ème. Duc de Montbazon, Pair de France, Prince de Guéméné, Comte de Rochefort (1598-1667).
Louis VIII de Rohan

Louis de Rohan, Comte de Mortiercrolles
Tenure: 1656-1669

Despite being a very wealthy man, Louis was not eager to spend his money. This - combined with greed - caused him to fall out with his sister, Anne de Rohan-Soubise. This would turn out to be a bit of a problem since she was the brief mistress of Louis XIV causing him to lose favour with the king.

Charles Maximillien de Belleforière, Marquis de Soyécourt
Tenure:  1669-1679

Charles was quite a good friend of Louis XIV; so much so that the king made him his aide-de-camp and demanded that Molière had the character of Dorante be based on him.

Charles Maximilien

François VII de La Rochefoucauld, Duc de La Rochefoucauld
Tenure: 1679

François VIII de La Rochefoucauld, Duc de La Rochefoucauld
Tenure: 1679-1714

Louis Alexandre de Bourbon, Comte de Toulouse
Tenure: 1714-1737

The legitimized son of La Montespan and Louis XIV, he was not considered to be as much of a threat as his older brother, the Duc du Maine. Consequently, he was allowed to have political influence during the Regency.

Portrait painting of Louis Alexandre de Bourbon, Count of Toulouse by Hyacinthe Rigaud.jpg
Louis Alexandre

Louis Jean Marie de Bourbon, Duc de Penthièvre
Tenure: 1737-1755

The only son of the Comte de Toulouse, he was regarded as one of the wealthiest men in Europe. He was also a very good friend of Louis XV.

Nattier L J M de Bourbon duc de Penthievre.jpg
Louis Jean Marie

Louis-Alexandre de Bourbon, Prince de Lamballe
Tenure: 1755-1768

He was the only son of the Duc de Penthièvre but died before his father; he was also the husband of Marie Antoinette's close friend, the Princesse de Lamballe.

Portrait painting of Louis Alexandre of Bourbon, Prince of Lamballe by an unknown artist.jpg

Louis Jean Marie de Bourbon, Duc de Penthièvre (again)
Tenure: 1768-1791

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