Sunday, 25 March 2018

The Exchange of Princesses

That arranged marriages were the norm amongst the nobility can hardly be disputed and when it came to the royal family quite a few of the marriages were concluded with foreign powers. Usually, a treaty or an alliance could be consolidated through marriage which the many conflicts in Europe gave plenty of need for.

Naturally, the exchange of princes and princesses happened both ways; some would leave France other would be sent there. What they did have in common was that most would never see their home country again. Most people have heard of the more famous and more prominent members of this group but few realize exactly how many there were.

Some may wonder at why there are no men listed below. Of course, half of the parties to the contracted marriages were men but they were never sent away to marry. This is due to the fact that a woman was defined by her husband's status - once she married, she would give up her original title and be known as the female equivalent of her husband. For example: Marie Antoinette was born an Archduchess of Austria but relinquished that title upon marrying Louis XVI; she then became Dauphine of France.

Note that I have chosen to name the people below by the French versions of their names but have included their original spellings beneath.

The French:

Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans
Original title: Mademoiselle de Montpensier
Daughter of: Philippe II d'Orléans and Françoise Marie de Bourbon
House: Bourbon-Orléans
Married: Luis I of Spain
Title by marriage: Queen of Spain

Luisa Isabel de Orleans.jpg
Louise Élisabeth



Marie Louise d'Orléans
Original title: Mademoiselle d'Orléans
Daughter of: Philippe I d'Orléans and Henriette of England
House: Bourbon-Orléans
Married: Charles II of Spain
Title by marriage: Queen of Spain

María Luisa de Orleans, reina de España.jpg
Marie Louise



Anne Marie d'Orléans
Daughter of: Philippe I d'Orléans and Henriette of England
House: Bourbon-Orléans
Married: Victor Amadeus II of Savoy
Title by marriage: Duchess of Savoy

Anne Marie d'Orléans, Princess of France and future Duchess of Savoy and Queen of Sardinia.jpg
Anne Marie



Louise Élisabeth de Bourbon
Original title: Madame Prémiere
Daughter of: Louis XV and Marie Leszczynska
House: Bourbon 
Married: Philip of Parma
Title by marriage: Duchess of Parma

Louise Élisabeth



Marie Clothilde de Bourbon
Daughter of: Louis Ferdinand of France and Marie Josèphe of Saxony 
House: Bourbon
Married: Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia
Title by marriage: Queen of Sardinia


Clothilde with guitar.jpg
Marie Clothilde


The Foreigners:


Marie Thérèse of Spain
Original name: Maria Teresa 
Original title: Infanta of Spain
Daughter of: Philip IV of Spain and Élisabeth of France
House: Habsburg
Married: Louis XIV of France
Title by marriage: Queen of France and Navarra
Age when married: 22  
Relation to husband: first cousins

Marie Thérèse

Henriette of England
Original name: Henrietta Maria
Original title: Princess of England
Daughter of: Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria of France
House: Stuart
Married: Philippe I d'Orléans 
Title by marriage: Duchesse d'Orléans
Age when married: 17
Relation to husband: cousins

Princess Henrietta Anne of England, Duchess of Orléans by Pierre Mignard.jpg
Henriette



Élisabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate 
Original name: Elizabeth Charlotte
Original title: Princess of the Palatinate 
Daughter of: Charles I of the Palatinate and Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel
House: Palatinate-Simmern
Married: Philippe I d'Orléans
Title by marriage: Duchesse d'Orléans
Age when married: 19


Liselotte von der pfalz.jpg
Elizabeth Charlotte



Marie Anne Victoire of Bavaria
Original name: Maria Anna Victoria
Daughter of: Ferdinand Maria of Bavaria and Henriette Adélaide of Savoy
House: Wittelsbach
Married: the Grand Dauphin
Title by marriage: Dauphine of France
Age when married: 20

Duchess Maria Anna Christina Victoria of Bavaria, 'la Grande Dauphine'..jpg
Marie Anne Victoire



Marie Adélaïde of Savoy
Original title: Princess of Savoy
Daughter of: Victor Amadeus II of Savoy and Anne Marie d'Orléans
House: Savoy
Married: Louis de Bourbon, Duc de Bourgogne
Title by marriage: Duchesse de Bourgogne 
Age when married: 12
Relation to husband: second cousins

Marie-Adélaïde de Savoie, duchesse de Bourgogne, l'école française.jpg
Marie Adélaïde



Anne Marie Martinozzi 
Original name: Anna Maria Martinozzi
Daughter of: Girolamo Martinozzi and Laura Margherita Mazzarini
House: Bourbon
Married: Armand de Bourbon-Condé 
Title by marriage: Princesse de Conti
Age when married: 17



Anna Maria Martonozzi, Princess of Conti by an unknown artist (Palace of Versailles).jpg
Anne Marie



Anne Henriette of Bavaria
Original name: Anna Henrietta Julie of Bavaria
Original title: Princess of the Palatinate
Daughter of: Edward of the Palatinate and Anna Gonzaga
House: Palatinate-Simmern
Married: Henri-Jules de Bourbon-Condé
Title by marriage: Princesse de Condé
Age when married: 15


Anne de Bavière par Gobert.jpg
Anne Henriette



Auguste of Baden-Baden
Original name: Auguste Marie Joanne of Baden-Baden
Original title: Margravine of Baden-Baden
Daughter of: Louis William of Baden-Baden and Sybille of Saxe-Lauenburg
House: Zähringen
Married: Louis d'Orléans
Title by marriage: Duchesse d'Orléans
Age when married: 20

Portrait said to be Auguste of Baden-Baden future Duchess of Orléans by an unknown artist.png
Auguste




Caroline of Hesse-Rotenburg
Original name: Caroline von Hesse-Rheinfels-Rotenburg
Daughter of: Ernest Leopold of Hesse-Rotenburg and Eleonore of Löwenstein-Wertheim
House: Hesse-Kassel
Married: Louis-Henri de Bourbon-Condé
Title by marriage: Princesse de Condé
Age when married: 14


Caroline



Marie Leszczynska
Original name: Maria Karolina Zofia Felicja Leszczynska
Original title: dethroned Princess of Poland
Daughter of: Stanislaw I of Poland and Catherine Opalinska 
House: Leszczynski 
Married: Louis XV 
Title by marriage: Queen of France and Navarre
Age when married: 22 


Marie Leszczynska



Marie Thérèse Raphaëlle of Spain
Original name: Maria Teresa Rafela of Spain
Original title: Infanta of Spain
Daughter of: Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese
House: Bourbon
Married: Louis Ferdinand of France
Title by marriage: Dauphine of France 
Age when married: 19
Relation to husband: cousins

Marie Thérèse Raphaëlle



Marie Josèphe of Saxony
Original name: Maria Josepha Karolina Eleonore Franziska Xaviera 
Original title: Princess of Saxony
Daughter of: Augustus III of Poland and Maria Josepha of Austria
House: Wettin
Married: Louis Ferdinand of France
Title by marriage: Dauphine of France
Age when married: 15

Billedresultat for Marie Josèphe of Saxony
Marie Josèphe



Marie Thérèse of Savoy
Original title: Princess of Savoy
Daughter of: Victor Amadeus III and Maria Antonia Ferdinanda of Spain
House: Savoy
Married: Charles Philippe of France
Title by marriage: Comtesse d'Artois
Age when married: 19

Marie Therese de Savoie, comtesse d'Artois.jpg
Marie Thérèse



Marie Antoinette of Austria
Original name: Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna
Original title: Archduchess of Austria
Daughter of: Maria Theresia of Austria and Francis I of Lorraine
House: Hapsburg
Married: Louis XVI
Title by marriage: Queen of France and Navarre
Age when married: 14
Relation to husband: distant cousins

Marie Antoinette



Marie Joséphine of Savoy
Original title: Princess of Savoy
Daughter of: Victor Amadeus III of Savoy and Maria Antonia Fernanda of Spain
House: Savoy
Married: Louis Stanislas of France
Title by marriage: Comtesse de Provence
Age when married: 18


Marie Josephine de Savoie comtesse de Provence.jpg
Marie Joséphine



Marie Thérèse Louise of Savoy
Original title: Princess of Savoy
Daughter of: Louis Victor of Savoy and Christine of Hesse-Rheinfelds-Rotenburg
House: Savoy
Married: Louis Alexandre de Bourbon-Penthièvre
Title by marriage: Princesse de Lamballe
Age when married: 18


Marie Thérèse Louise



Marie Thérèse Félicité d'Este
Original name: Maria Teresa Felicitas d'Este
Original title: Princess of Modena
Daughter of: François III of Modena and Charlotte Aglaé d'Orléans
House: Este
Married: Louis Jean Marie de Bourbon
Title by marriage: Duchesse de Penthièvre
Age when married: 18


Marie-Thérèse-Félicité d'Este  (copie par Rosalie Grossard, déb. XIXe siècle)
Marie Thérèse Félicité



Marie Catherine Brignole
Original name: Maria Caterina Brignole
Daughter of: Giuseppe Brignole and Maria Anna Balbi
House: Brignole
Married: Louis Joseph de Bourbon-Condé
Title by marriage: Princesse de Condé
Age when married: 20

Maria Caterina Brignole de Sale, principessa di Monaco.jpg
Marie Catherine



Marie Fortune d'Este
Original name: Maria Fortunata d'Este
Original title: Princess of Modena
Daughter of: Francesco III of Modena and Charlotte Aglaé d'Orléans
House: Este
Married: Louis François Joseph de Bourbon-Conti
Title by marriage: Princesse de Conti
Age when married: 18

Fortunée d'Este, Countess of La Marche, Princess of Conti, by an unknown artist.png
Marie Fortune

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