Saturday, 17 March 2018

Household of the Grand Dauphin of the 1660's


During the first seven years of his life the Grand Dauphin was entrusted to the care of women. It was only when he reached the age of seven that he would be handed over to a male household.

Age: 0-7 (1661-1668)

First governess
Wages: 3600 livres
Held by: Julie Lucine d'Angennes de Rambouillet, Marquise de Montausier

Duties: She possessed quite significant power in that if the king and queen were absent she would control the access to the dauphin and oversee the assembly of the council of war; should the monarchs be away it would fall to her to give orders to the ushers. She was always to sleep in the dauphin's bedchamber in case he should fall ill during the night.

Julie d'Angennes

Second governess 
Wages: 1200 livres
Held by: Louise de Taverny
Duties: She took over the duties of the first governess when the latter was not available

First wet-nurse
Wages: 1200 livres
Held by: Marguerite de Fleur

Wages: 360 livres

Held by: Marguerite Robert

Duties: her main duty was to assist the wet-nurse and also slept in the dauphin's bedchamber

First lady of the bedchamber
Wages: 360 livres
Held by: Elizabeth du Toc

Three ladies of the chamber
Wages: 200 livres

Held by: Demoiselle Giraude, Demoiselle Marie Flourer and Demoiselle Marguerite Baron
Duties: they, too, slept in the dauphin's bedchamber. The eldest would sleep in the bed with the child.

Housekeeper of the wet-nurse
Wages: 150 livres 

Held by: Toinette Guilloir

Housekeeper of the nurse
Wages: 150 livres

Held by: Françoise Michel

Wages: 400 livres

Held by: Antoine du Bord 

Duties: keeping the dauphin's finances in order which included making sure that everyone - in or providing something for the household - was paid.

Wages: unpaid or unknown

Held by: N. Hocar

Wages: 100 livres

Held by: René Courdemer 

Wages: 60 livres

Held by: Jeanne de Fontainebleau

These were the persons directly connected to the household of the dauphin before his seventh birthday. While he was still under the age of seven he would be served by a lot of the people who equally served his father, the king. For example, the ushers, the doctors and the priests were the same and saw to his needs as well. Also, the guards standing by his door were members of the king's guard.

Billedresultat for grand dauphin child
Louis de Bourbon, le Grand Dauphin

Once he reached that particular age his household was divided in the same manner as his father' although somewhat simplified. The household was divided into one of the bedchamber, one ecclesiastical, one of the wardrobe, one medicinal, one military and one for hunting. The king's grand officers were also in charge of the dauphin's sub-departments at this point. What is interesting is that his previous female household were still attached to his new one. It could be imagined that this was to make the transfer from female to male somewhat easier if he were surrounded by familiar faces.

Age 8 (1668-69)

Held by: Duc de Montausier

Billedresultat for marquis de montausier
The Duc de Montausier

Second governor
Held by: M. Milet

Held by: unknown

Man-servant of gentle birth
Held by: M. de la Chénaye

First valet of the bedchamber
Held by: M. Joyeux

Two boys of the chamber
Held by: Michel Hocar and René Courdemer

Held by: : Daniel Clinet 

Writing teacher
Held by: M. Gilbert

Dancing teacher
Held by: M. Renal

Two boys of the wardrobe
Held by: N. Machinet and N. Bienfait

"Blanchisseuse du corps" 
Held by: Marie du Soustra

Duties: the job was basically to bathe the dauphin

"Empeseur du corps"
Held by: François l'Epine

Duties: oddly enough, there was only one duty attached to this position: drying the dauphin off when he had had a bath

Held by: N. le Poitevin 

Three children of honour 
Held by: Louis Charles de Vitry, Marquis de Châteauvillain (son of the Duc de Vitry), Jean d'Etrée (son of the Marquis de Cœuvres) and Nicolas Duranville, Baron de Bellemare

Duties: they basically acted as playmates to the dauphin and had the added benefit of being highborn themselves

A governor of the children of honour
Held by: M. des Fontaines
Duties: keeping the children of honour under control

Two pages of the bedchamber 
Held by: N. de la Chénaye and N. de Mineur

A governor of the pages
Held by: M. Girardin

Duties: like his counterpart, he was to make sure that the pages fulfilled their duties which could be somewhat troublesome since the two pages were quite young

Six valets
A servant for the use of the pages

The remaining members of his household were technically attached to that of Louis XIV but lend their services to the heir to the throne as well. These included: 

A chaplain 
A clerk 

A butler
A comptroller general
Two manservants 
A combined four chefs: two for the food, one for the drink and one baker.
Two chefs assistants

A squire
An usher
A servant
A washing woman 

Two ushers of the bedchamber
Three valets
A barber
An upholsterer 

A first valet of the wardrobe
Two valet of the wardrobe 
A servant of the wardrobe

First doctor
A surgeon
An apothecary 
An apothecary's assistant

A squire of the stables
Two footmen from the Great Stables (Grand Ecurie)

A Lieutenant 
A company of guards
A brigadier
A second-brigadier 
Twenty French guards
Six Swiss guards
Four guards 
A caretaker
A company of gendarmes 
A cavalry regiment
A regiment of infantry

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