Sunday, 4 March 2018

Marèchaux de France During Louis XIV

A

Abraham de Fabert, Marquis d'Esternay
Granted the title: 1658
Married to: unknown
Fought in: Thirty Years' War, French-Spanish War
Nationality: French

Abraham

Anne Hilarion de Costentin, Comte de Tourville
Granted the title: 1693
Married to: Louise-Françoise d'Hymbercourt
Fought in: Dutch Wars, War of the League of Augsburg
Nationality: French

Portrait du comte de Tourville
Anne Hilarion

Anne-Jules de Noailles, Duc de Noailles
Granted the title: 1693
Married to: Marie-Françoise de Bournonville
Fought in: War in the Netherlands, War of the League of Augsburg
Nationality: French

He had no less than eighteen children by his wife!

Portrait d'Anne-Jules de Noailles par Hyacinthe Rigaud. Grenoble, Musée des beaux-arts.
Anne-Jules

Antoine d'Aumont de Rochebaron, Duc d'Aumont
Granted the title: 1651
Married to: Catherine Scaron de Vaures
Fought in: Battles of Rethel, Feneau, Siege of La Rochelle
Nationality: French

Was also given the title of captain of the king's guard. His wife was the niece of Paul Scarron - husband of the future Madame de Maintenon

Image illustrative de l'article Antoine d'Aumont de Rochebaron
Antoine

Armand-Frédéric de Schomberg, Duc de Schomberg
Granted the title: 1675
Married to: (I) Jeanne Elisabeth de Schomberg (II) Suzanne d'Aumale
Fought in: A vast amount of battles including the Siege of Maastricht
Nationality: German (born in Heidelberg)

He fought for no less than six countries: France, Portugal, Prussia, the Netherlands, England and Sweden. A Protestant, he refused to give up his faith following the revocation of the Edict of Nantes and had to leave France.

Image illustrative de l'article Frédéric-Armand de Schomberg
Armand-Frédéric

Armand Nompar de Caumont, Duc de La Force
Granted the title: 1652
Married to: Jeanne de La Rochefaton
Fought in: Italian campaign
Nationality: French

He was made master of the king's wardrobe to Louis XIII

Image illustrative de l'article Armand Nompar de Caumont
Armand

B

Bernardin Gigault, Marquis de Bellefonds
Granted the title: 1668
Married to: Madeleine Bouquet
Fought in: War of Devolution, War of the League of Augsburg, War in the Netherlands
Nationality: French

He was a favourite of the young Louis XIV and defended the city of Cognac against the Prince de Condé during the Fronde

Bernardin Gigault, marquis de BellefondsPortrait par Joseph Albrier
Bernardin

C

Camille d'Hostun de La Baume, Duc d'Hostun
Granted the title: 1703
Married to: Marie-Catherine de Grolée de Viriville La Tivolière
Fought in: Dutch Wars, War of the League of Augsburg, War of the Spanish Succession
Nationality: French

Camille d'Hostun, duc d'Hostun (1652–1728).
Camille
César de Choiseul-Praslin, Duc de Choiseul
Granted the title: 1645
Married to: Colombe de Charron
Fought in: Thirty Years' War, Fronde, Dutch War (1672-78)
Nationality: French

Also served as governor of Monsieur, Philippe d'Orléans

Portrait du maréchal du Plessis
César

César Phoebus d'Albret, Comte de Miossens
Granted the title: 1653
Married to: Madeleine de Guénégaud
Fought in: Sieges of Mardyck and Dunkirk
Nationality: French

Served first under Maurice of Orange-Nassau against the Spaniards before returning to court where he would witness the rise of his cousin, Madame de Montespan.

Image illustrative de l'article César d'Albret
César Phoebus

Charles Auguste Goÿon de Matignon, Comte de Matignon
Granted the title: 1708
Married to: unknown
Fought in: Dutch Wars, War of the Spanish Succession, War of Crete
Nationality: French

Image illustrative de l'article Charles Auguste de Goyon de Matignon
Charles Auguste

Charles de Monchy, Marquis d'Hocquincourt
Granted the title: 1651
Married to: Eléonore d'Estampes
Fought in: Thirty Years' War, French-Spanish War
Nationality: French

Died at the Siege of Dunkirk at the age of 59

Image illustrative de l'article Charles de Monchy d'Hocquincourt
Charles de Monchy

Claude de Choiseul, Marquis de Francières
Granted the title: 1693
Married to: unknown
Fought in: Sieges of Lille, Fribourg, Tournai and Douai
Nationality: French

Image illustrative de l'article Claude de Choiseul-Francières
Claude

Claude-Louis-Hector de Villars, Duc de Villars
Granted the title: 1702
Married to: Jeanne Angélique Roque de Varengeville
Fought in: War of the Spanish Succession
Nationality: French

Portrait du maréchal de Villars, par Hyacinthe Rigaud.
Claude-Louis-Hector

Conrad de Rosen, Comte de Bolweiller
Granted the title: 1703
Married to: Marie-Sophie de Rosen Gros-Ropp
Fought in: Dutch Wars, War of the League of Augsburg
Nationality: Baltic (he was born in Livonia which was then under Swedish control but is today split between Estonia and Latvia)

Le maréchal de Rosen. Copie d'après Hyacinthe Rigaud
Conrad

F

Ferdinand Marsin, Comte de Marsin
Granted the title:
Married to: unknown
Fought in: War of the Spanish Succession, War of the League of Augsburg
Nationality: Belgian (Holy Roman Empire at the time)

He died of wounds he sustained in the Battle of Turin.


François d'Aubusson, Duc de la Feuillade
Granted the title: 1675
Married to: Charlotte Gouffier
Fought in: Expedition to Sicily
Nationality: French

Image illustrative de l'article François III d'Aubusson
François d'Aubusson

François de Créquy, Marquis de Marines
Granted the title: 1668
Married to: Catherine de Rougé
Fought in: Thirty Years' War, War in the Netherlands
Nationality: French

He quickly caught the eye of his superiors while a young man due to his military prowess and earned the gratitude of Louis XIV by remaining loyal to the crown during the Fronde

Billedresultat for francois de crequy
François de Créquy

François de Neufville de Villeroy, Duc de Villeroy
Granted the title: 1693
Married to: Marguerite-Marie de Cossé-Brissac
Fought in: First Austrian-Turkish War, War of the Spanish Succession, War of the League of Augsburg
Nationality: French

Louis XIV named him governor of Louis XV in his will which was later confirmed by Parliament

Le maréchal de Villeroy, Alexandre-François Caminade, 1834
François de Neufville

François-Henri de Montmorency-Luxembourg, Duc de Piney-Luxembourg
Granted the title: 1675
Married to: Madeleine de Clermont-Tonnerre
Fought in: Dutch Wars, War of Devolution, War of the League of Augsburg
Nationality: French

Portrait de François-Henri de Montmorency
François-Henri

François Louis Rousselet, Marquis de Châteaurenault
Granted the title: 1703
Married to: (I) Marie-Anne Renée de la Porte (II) Anne-Marie du Han de Bertric
Fought in: Dutch Wars, War of the Spanish Succession, War of the League of Augsburg
Nationality: French

François Louis

G

Gaspard IV de Coligny, Duc de Coligny
Granted the title: 1649
Married to: Élisabeth-Angélique de Montmorency
Fought in: Battles of Rocroi, Nördlingen and Lens, Siege of Arras
Nationality: French

Image illustrative de l'article Gaspard IV de Coligny
Gaspard IV

Godefroy d'Estrades, Comte d'Estrades
Granted the title: 1675
Married to: Marie Lallier du Pin
Fought in:  Thirty Years' War
Nationality: French

He was appointed ambassador to England and later to the Netherlands where he signed the treaty of Breda with Denmark on behalf of France.

Image illustrative de l'article Godefroi d'Estrades
Godefroy

Guy de Durfort, Duc de Lorges
Granted the title: 1676
Married to: Geneviève Frémont d'Auneuil
Fought in: Sack of the Palatinate
Nationality: French

Portrait du duc de Lorges peint en 1835 par Merry-Joseph Blondel : commande de Louis-Philippe Ier pour le musée historique de Versailles.
Guy


H

Henri d'Harcourt, Duc d'Harcourt
Granted the title: 1703
Married to: Marie Anne Claude de Brulart de Genlis
Fought in: Dutch Wars, War of the League of Augsburg, War of the Spanish Succession
Nationality: French


Henri de la Ferté-Senneterre, Duc de la Ferté-Senneterre
Granted the title: 1651
Married to: (I) Charlotte de Bauves (II) Madeleine d'Angennes
Fought in: Dutch Revolt, Siege of La Rochelle and Gravelines, Battle of Rocroi
Nationality: French

His father had been a favourite of Anne of Austria and Henri became governor of Lorraine

Henri de Senneterre, maréchal-duc de La Ferté (1599-1681), maréchal de France en 1651, François-Joseph Heim (1787-1865), 1835, musée historique de Versailles
Henri de La Ferté-Senneterre

Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, Vicomte de Turenne
Granted the title: 1643
Married to: Charlotte de Caumont La Force
Fought in: War of Devolution, Thirty Years' War and the War in the Netherlands (1672-78)
Nationality: French

Portrait par l'entourage de Philippe de Champaigne.
Henri


Henri Louis d'Aloigny, Marquis de Rochefort
Granted the title: 1675
Married to: Madeleine de Laval-Bois-Dauphin
Fought in: War of Devolution, Dutch Wars
Nationality: French

J

Jacques de Bazin, Marquis de Berzons
Granted the title: 1709
Married to: Marie-Marguerite Le Menestrel
Fought in: War of Crete, Dutch Wars, War of the League of Augsburg, War of the Spanish Succession
Nationality: French

Portrait du Maréchal de Bezons
Jacques de Bazin

Jacques d'Étampes, Marquis de la Ferté-Imbault
Granted the title: 1651
Married to: Catherine-Blanche de Choiseul
Fought in: Sieges of Juliers, Soissons, Château-Porcien and Saint-Menehould, Battle of Rethel and countless others
Nationality: French

He was a close friend of Gaston d'Orléans whose regiment of gendarmes he was put in charge of.

Jacques d'Estampes, Marechal de France
Jacques d'Étampes
Jacques Fitz-James, Duc de Fitz-James
Granted the title: 1706
Married to: (I) Honora de Bourgh (II) Anne Bulkeley
Fought in: Austrian-Turkish War, War of the Polish Succession, War of the Spanish Succession
Nationality: English

He was the illegitimate son of James II and Arabella Churchill.

Jacques Fitz-James, duc de Berwick
Jacques Fitz-James

Jacques de Castelnau-Bochetel, Marquis de Castelnau
Granted the title: 1658
Married to: Marie Girard de l'Espinay
Fought in: Thirty Years' War, French-Spanish War
Nationality: French

Jacques de Castelnau, gravure par Robert Nanteuil.
Jacques de Castelnau

Jacques Henri de Durfort, Duc de Duras
Granted the title: 1675
Married to: Marguerite Félice de Lévis
Fought in: Conquest of Franche-Comté, War of the League of Augsburg
Nationality: French

Image illustrative de l'article Jacques-Henri de Durfort
Jacques Henri

Jacques Rouxel, Comte de Grancey
Granted the title: 1651
Married to: (I) Catherine de Monchy (II) Charlotte de Mornay
Fought in: Thirty Years' War, Wars of Religion
Nationality: French


Jean II d'Estrées, Comte d'Estrées
Granted the title: 1681
Married to: Marie Marguerite Morin
Fought in: Dutch Wars, War of the League of Augsburg, War of Devolution
Nationality: French

His service to Louis XIV earned him the courtesy title of vice-roy of the Americas

Jean II d'Estrées, vu par Jean-Pierre Franque (détail, 1838, musée du château de Versailles).
Jean II


Jean de Gassion, Comte de Gassion
Granted the title: 1643
Married to: never married
Fought in: Thirty Years' War, Battle of Rocroi, Revolt of 1639
Nationality: French

He also served Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden before dying in battle in 1647

Jean de Gassion, gravure de Gérard Edelinck
Jean

Jean de Schulemberg, Comte de Montdejeu
Granted the title: 1658
Married to: unknown / never married
Fought in: Battle of the White Mountain, Siege of Montauban and Hesdin
Nationality: Prussian


Jean-Armand de Joyseuse, Marquis de Grandpré
Granted the title: 1693
Married to: Marguerite de Joyeuse
Fought in: Battles of Nerwinde, Rethel etc.
Nationality: French

He was seriously wounded in the Battle of Nerwinde where he was shot in by a musket


Josias Rantzau, Comte de Rantzau
Granted the title: 1643
Married to: Hedwig Margarethe Elisabeth Rantzau
Fought in: Thirty Years' War
Nationality: Danish

He fought for his own king, Christian IV, as well as that of Sweden, France and the Holy Roman Emperor

Josias Rantzau, par Jean Alaux
Josias

L

Louis de Crevant, Duc d'Humières
Granted the title: 1668
Married to: Louise Antoinette Thérèse de la Châtre
Fought in: Thirty Years' War, War of the League of Augsburg, War in the Netherlands
Nationality: French

He was made grand maître of the artillery; he would eventually die at Versailles.

Louis de Crevant, maréchal d'Humières
Louis de Crevant

Louis de Foucault de Saint-Germain Beaupré, Comte du Daugnon
Granted the title: 1653
Married to: Marie Four de Dampierre
Fought in: Battle of Cadix and Siege of Orbetello
Nationality: French

He was also vice-admiral of France but chose to side with the Prince de Condé against the royal family during the Fronde


Louis François de Boufflers, Duc de Boufflers
Granted the title: 1693
Married to: Catherine Charlotte de Gramont
Fought in: Dutch Wars, War of the Spanish Succession, War of the League of Augsburg
Nationality: French

Billedresultat for louis boufflers
Louis François

Louis Victor de Rochechouart, Duc de Mortemart
Granted the title: 1675
Married to: Antoinette de Mesmes
Fought in: Dutch Wars
Nationality: French

He was made both first gentleman of the king's bedchamber and vice-roy of Sicily

Image illustrative de l'article Louis Victor de Rochechouart de Mortemart
Louis Victor

N

Nicolas Auguste de la Baume, Marquis de Montrevel
Granted the title: 1703
Married to: (I) Isabelle de Veyrat de Paulian (II) unknown woman
Fought in: French-Spanish War, War of Devolution, Dutch Wars, War of the League of Augsburg
Nationality: French

Portrait du marquis de MonterevelHuile sur toile de Gillot Saint-Evre, 1835.
Nicolas Auguste

Nicolas Catinat, Seigneur de Saint-Gracien
Granted the title: 1693
Married to: unknown
Fought in: War of the League of Augsburg, War of the Spanish Succession, Dutch Wars
Nationality: French

Image illustrative de l'article Nicolas de Catinat
Nicolas Catinat

Nicolas Chalon du Blé, Marquis d'Huxelles
Granted the title: 1703
Married to: never married (he was infamously homosexual)
Fought in: Sieges of Philipsburg and Mayence
Nationality: French

He represented Louis XIV in the peace negotiations at Utrecht in 1713

Nicolas Chalon du Blé
Nicolas Chalon
Nicolas de Neufville de Villeroy, Duc de Villeroy
Granted the title: 1646
Married to: Madeleine de Blanchefort de Créquy
Fought in: Italian campaign of Louis XIII
Nationality: French

He was appointed governor of Louis XIV in 1646

Le maréchal-duc Nicolas V de Neufville de Villeroy (musée de la Révolution française).
Nicolas de Neufville

Noël Bouton, Marquis de Chamilly
Granted the title: 1703
Married to: Élisabeth du Bouchet
Fought in: War of the Spanish Succession, War of the League of Augsburg, War of Devolution, War in the Netherlands
Nationality: French

Billedresultat for noel bouton
Noël


P

Pierre de Montesquiou, Comte d'Artagnan
Granted the title: 1709
Married to: (I) Jeanne Pasdeloup (II) Élisabeth l'hermine l'Hieville
Fought in: War of the League of Augsburg, War of the Spanish Succession
Nationality: French

He was the cousin of the musketeer d'Artagnan who featured in "the Three Musketeers".

Sophie Rochard, Pierre de Montesquiou d'Artagnan (1834),château de Versailles.
Pierre

Philippe de Clérambault, Comte de la Pallau
Granted the title: 1653
Married to: Louise Bouthillier
Fought in: Sieges of Ypres, Bellegarde and Montrond, the Fronde, Battles of Nördlingen and Fribourg
Nationality: French

Image illustrative de l'article Philippe de Clérambault
Philippe de Clérambault

Philippe de Montaut-Bénac, Duc de Navailles
Granted the title: 1675
Married to: Suzanne de Beaudéan-Parabère
Fought in: Thirty Years' War, Ten Years' War (in the Franche-Comté), the Fronde, War in the Netherlands, French-Spanish War, War of Devolution 
Nationality: French

Philippe de Montaut-Bénac, duc de Navailles.Portrait anonyme, Paris, BnF, département des estampes, XVIIe siècle.
Philippe de Montaut

R

René de Froulay, Comte de Tessé
Granted the title: 1703
Married to: Marie Françoise Auber d'Aunay
Fought in: Dutch Wars, War of the League of Augsburg, War of the Spanish Succession
Nationality: French

He served as an ambassador to Rome and Madrid respectively
Portrait du maréchal de Tessé. Copie d'après Hyacinthe Rigaud (1700). Le Mans, Musée de Tessé.
René

S

Sébastien Le Prestre, Marquis de Vauban
Granted the title: 1703
Married to: Jeanne d'Osnay
Fought in: Fronde, War of Devolution, War of the League of Augsburg, Dutch Wars, War of the Spanish Succession
Nationality: French

During his military career he is credited by having taken no less than 49 towns.

Vauban, avec sa cicatrice ronde sur la joue gauche due à un coup de mousquet reçu lors du siège de Douai. Tableau attribué à une école de peinture du XVIIIe siècle.
Sébastien


V

Victor Marie d'Estrées, Duc d'Estrées
Granted the title: 1703
Married to: Lucie Félicité de Noailles
Fought in: War of the League of Augsburg, War of the Spanish Succession
Nationality: French

He was a keen scientist who became a member of the Académie des Sciences and Académie Française 

Victor Marie d'Estrées par Nicolas de Largillierre
Victor

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