Saturday, 16 December 2017

The House of du Crussol

The family originated in Languedoc and spread into three distinct branches: the Duc d'Uzès, the Marquis du Crussol and de Montausier and the Marquis de Florensac. Of these three branches the main one was that of the dukedom of d'Uzès. 

Duc d'Uzès

This branch was first granted the title of Vicomte d'Uzès, then Comte and finally Duc in the 16th century. Following the beheading of the Duc de Montmorency in 1632, the Duc d'Uzès was made first peer in France. The family from the reign of Louis XIV to the revolution was:

I. Emmanuel I de Crussol and (I) Claudie Hébrard de Saint-Sulpice, (II) Marguerite de Flagheac

Emmanuel also held the titles of Prince de Soyons, Comte de Crussol and Baron de Lévis de Florensac. He carried the royal crown at the funeral of Louis XIII.

Children of Emmanuel and Claudie:
  • François de Crussol, Duc d'Uzès
  • Armand de Crussol
  • Jacques Christophe de Crussol, Marquis de Saint-Sulpice
  • Alexandre-Galliot de Crussol d'Uzès, Marquis de Monsalez
  • Anne-Gaston de Crussol d'Uzès, Baron de Forensic
  • Louise de Crussol d'Uzès, Marquise de Portes
Children of Emmanuel and Marguerite:

  • Armand de Crussol d'Uzès, Comte d'Uzès

II. François de Crussol and (I) Henriette de la Châtre, (II) Marguerite d'Apchier

François was of great importance in annexing the area of Rousillon into France through the Treaty of the Pyrenees. Both he and Marguerite were present at the wedding of Louis XIV to Marie Thérèse in 1660 - incidentally, the same year of their own marriage.
The couple would enjoy great favour at the court of Louis XIV. He gave them the honours of the Louvre which allowed them to drive their carriages all the way to the palace doors and permitted Marguerite to sit in front of the queen. 

François and Henriette had no children since she died shortly after their marriage.

François and Marguerite had seven children:
  • Emmanuel II de Crussol, Duc d'Uzès
  • Louis de Crussol - founded the branch titled Marquis de Florensac
  • Galliot de Crussol, Abbot of d'Uzès
  • Marguerite de Crussol, Carmelite nun
  • Anne-Louise de Crussol, nun
  • Marie-Rose de Crussol, first Comtesse de Laudun, then Marquis de Murviel 
  • Suzanne de Crussol, Abbess of d'Hyères
Billedresultat for Claudie Hébrard de Saint-Sulpice

III. Emmanuel II de Crussol and Marie-Julie de Sainte-Maure-Montausier

Emmanuel inherited his father's title of Duc d'Uzès and Marie-Julie held the title of Marquise de Montausier in her own name. It was then passed on to her second son.

Marie-Julie was in charge of the Grand Dauphin's wardrobe; she was reprimanded by Louis XIV for introducing new fashions into the young boy's style. She had been introduced to Anne of Austria as a child and had charmed her so much that the queen-mother invited her father to court to assist in negotiating the king's marriage.

The couple was separated in 1685.

The couple had eight children:
  • Louis de Crussol d'Uzès, Duc d'Uzès
  • Julie Françoise de Crussol d'Uzès, Marquise de Montespan
  • Jean Charles de Crussol d'Uzès, Duc d'Uzès
  • Louis de Crussol d'Uzès, Abbot of Uzès
  • François de Crussol d'Uzès, Marquis de Montausier
  • Felix-Louis de Crussol d'Uzès
  • Catherine Louise de Crussol d'Uzès, Marquise de Barbezieux
  • Thérèse-Marguerite de Crussol d'Uzès
Billedresultat for Emmanuel II de Crussol
Emmanuel II

IV. Jean Charles de Crussol d'Uzès and (I) Anne Hippolyte Grimaldi, (II) Marguerite de Bullion,

Jean Charles was made colonel of the regiment named after his family; however, he was obliged to leave this post after a bad fall from his horse during a battle. It was he who carried the king's standard in Louis XIV's last meeting with the Paris parliament in 1715.

Jean and Anne had two children:
  • Marguerite de Crussol d'Uzès
  • Anne Charlotte de Crussol d'Uzès

Billedresultat for Emmanuel I de Crussol

Jean and Marguerite had eight children:
  • Charles Emmanuel de Crussol d'Uzès, Duc d'Uzès
  • Anne Marie Louise de Crussol d'Uzès
  • Louis Emmanuel de Crussol d'Uzès
  • François Alexandre de Crussol d'Uzès
  • Anne Louise Hortense de Crussol d'Uzès
  • Anne Marie Antoinette de Crussol d'Uzès
  • Anne Julie Françoise de Crussol d'Uzès
  • Anne Charlotte Emilie de Crussol d'Uzès

V. Charles Emmanuel de Crussol d'Uzès and Émilie de La Rochefoucauld

The couple had three children:

  • François-Emmanuel de Crussol d'Uzès, Duc d'Uzès
  • Charles-Emmanuel de Crussol d'Uzès
  • Charlotte-Émile de Crussol d'Uzès, Duchesse de Rohan

Charles Emmanuel
VI. François-Emmanuel de Crussol d'Uzès and Magdeleine de Pardaillan de Gondrin

François-Emmanuel served during the Seven Years' War as a colonel of the regiment named after this family. He was later promoted to Marèchal de camp.

Magdeleine was a direct descendant of Madame de Montespan through her marriage to the Duc de Montespan.

The couple had two children:

  • Marie Charlotte de Crussol d'Uzès
  • François de Crussol d'Uzès, Duc d'Uzès
Billedresultat for duc d'Uzés
François Emmanuel

VII. Marie-François-Emmanuel de Crussol d'Uzès and Émilie de Châtillon

Marie-François-Emmanuel was a colonel of the Berry-regiment until the revolution. He then emigrated to serve under Condé's army. He would later travel to the court of Russia.

Émille was Duchesse de Châtillon in her own right. Ironically, she was a descendant of Louise de La Vallière - one can only wonder if it caused any disputes with her mother-in-law?

They had two children:

  • Adrien-François-Emmanuel de Crussol d'Uzès
  • Alexandrine-Céleste de Crussol d'Uzès
Billedresultat for Marie-François-Emmanuel de Crussol d'Uzès
Amable Emilie de CHÂTILLON

Marquis de Florensac

I. Louis de Crussol de Florensac and Marie Louise Thérèse de Senneterre de Châteauneuf

Louis was the son of the second Duc d'Uzès
Marie was the daughter of the Marquis de Châteauneuf 

The couple had two children:
  • François Emmanuel de Crussol d'Uzès, Marquis de Florensac
  • Anne Charlotte de Crussol d'Uzès, Duchesse d'Aiguillon 
Madame la marquise de Florensac (A. Trouvain).tiff
Marie Louise Thérèse
II. François Emmanuel de Crussol de Florensac and Marguerite Colbert de Villacerf
François died at the age of just 25 years old

The couple had one child:
  • Pierre Emmanuel de Crussol d'Uzès

III. Pierre Emmanuel de Crussol de Florensac and Marguerite Charlotte Fleuriau
Pierre served in the army first in Germany and then in Corsica. In 1750 he was made royal envoy to the Duke of Parma - Louis XV's son-in-law.
The couple had three children:
  • Henri-Charles de Crussol d'Uzès
  • Alexandre-Charles de Crussol d'Uzès
  • A daughter

IV. Alexandre-Charles de Crussol de Florensac and Bonne Anne Marie Josephine Bernard de Boulainvilliers 

Alexandre-Charles chose a career in the army since he was not expected to inherit the title. His first post was as captain of the bodyguard of the Comte d'Artois. He was a successful courtier and even participated in the theatricals in Marie Antoinette's theatre. He emigrated during the revolution, first to Switzerland, then Rome and finally Florence where he continued to support the Bourbon-family. He returned to France at the restoration.

The couple had no children

Image illustrative de l'article Alexandre-Charles-Emmanuel de Crussol
Billedresultat for Emmanuel I de Crussol
Anne Marie Josephine

Interesting facts and anecdotes:

  • Anne-Charlotte de Crussol de Florensac was celebrated for her salon and frequently corresponded with Montesquieu 
  • The Duc de Saint-Simon described Marie Louise Thérèse de Senneterre de Châteauneuf (first Marquise de Florensac) as "the most beautiful woman in France"
  • Two men from the family - Alexandre Charles de Crussol d'Uzès and Emmanuel Henri Charles de Crussol - became deputies to the Estates Général in 1789
  • Anne Emmanuel François Georges de Crussol d'Uzès was guillotined on 26 July 1794

Portrait gallery:

François Emmanuel de Crussol d'Uzès,
Archbishop of La Rochelle

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