søndag den 25. januar 2015

A Duel Ensues!

The regency of the Duc d'Orlèans during the minority of Louis XV was a great deal more colourful than the latter years of Louis XIV. The fêtes became wilder and some developed into downright orgies. The courtiers that flocked the chambers of the Regent sniffed eagerly for the slightest sign of a scandal; and they soon found one.

Hyacinthe_Rigaud_Portrait_présumé_du_comte_de_Gacé_15092012393.jpg (1200×1600)
Comte de Gacé
The Comte de Gacé was a host of such evening fêtes which soon gained a reputation for debauchery. Several prominent members of court - including the Prince de Soubise and Madame Neslé - were mentioned as frequent goers to the Comte de Gacé's house though it should be said that whether there was actually orgies going on or not is unknown. 
One lady received more than her fair share of the gossip: the Comtesse de Gacé, wife of the host. She was especially slandered by her fellow-courtiers. And of course the gossips were not trying to hide where they allegedly got their informations from; the Duc de Richelieu was pointed out as having revealed what was going on in the house of Gacé - but did he?

Hearing how his wife was attacked by the gossips, the Comte de Gacé became infuriated and he was all too ready to accept the Duc de Richelieu as the arbiter of her disgrace. Following the style of time the Comte de Gacé contacted a poet and entrusted him to compose a ballad against Richelieu. In true courtier-fashion the Comte de Gacé proceeded to sing the ballad at the first encounter he had with Richelieu at a ball on 17th February 1716; furthermore, he warned a lady with whom Richelieu was corresponding to take care since Richelieu was not to be trusted.

The Duc de Richelieu was shocked and greatly angered by this behaviour and challenged the Comte de Gacé to a duel. The duel was to take place immediately - to the great excitement of the thronging courtiers. Gacé was wounded in the arm while Richelieu was hit with a sword without suffering much.

Duc de Richelieu
The Parliament of Paris was deeply annoyed at this disturbance of the peace and decided to make an example of it. The Duc de Richelieu received a notice on 27th February to report as to why he had duelled with the Comte. Richelieu refused to accept the authority of the Parliament and presented a petition to the King wherein he reminded him that as the holder of two duchies he had a right to be judged by the King himself. Richelieu was all too well aware that the Parliament had not gotten on well with the Peers of France for some time and obviously feared an unjust trial.
The rebuke caused further bickering between the courtiers and the Parliament but the matter was ended with a letter-cachet from the King on 5 March. It decreed that the Duc and the Comte were both to be confined to the Bastille. The Parliament, meanwhile, had continued prosecuting the Duc de Richelieu and the case ended in a compromise. The King - through the Regent - allowed the Parliament to judge but sent two adversaries of his own choosing.
During his two months imprisonment, Richelieu made all attempts at concealing his involvement in the duel, going so far as to cover the scars with a sort of foundation. A failed escape attempt (aided by his mistress and her sister) later and the wound had reopened. 

In the end it all came to nothing. On the 21st August both Richelieu and Gacé were freed and the charges were dropped. They were seen embracing and departed for a dinner at the latter's house.

lørdag den 24. januar 2015

The Power Couple

During the minority of Louis XV one of the most significant players on the political scene was Louis Henri, Duc de Bourbon and - perhaps even more so - his mistress Jeanne Agnès Berthelot de Pléneuf, known as Madame de Prie or the Marquise de Prie. Luckily for the couple, the Marquis de Prie was employed as the Ambassador to Savoy which meant that there was plenty of time for the couple to scheme their way to the top.

In 1723 the Duc de Bourbon managed to get himself promoted to the post of Prime Minister but at court there was never any doubt that the real power lay with Madame de Prie. Louis Henri had little will to resist the manipulative nature of his mistress.
At this point in time the young King fell seriously ill and his life was nearly despaired of. With an engagement to the five-year old Infanta of Spain there was no hope of an heir to the throne for quite some time. Consequently, the engagement was broken off. This is where the Duc de Bourbon and Madame de Prie came into play.


Madame de Prie

Marie Leszczynska had long been intended as a bride for the Comte de Charolais who was the brother of Louis Henri. However, now that the King was to marry - and now - an opportunity presented itself to impose their own will on a vital matter. It was thanks to the Duc de Bourbon and Madame de Prie that Louis XV was eventually married to Marie Leszczynska.

Madame de Prie was not a well-liked figure at court. Her arrogance as well as her wild ambition meant that she made enemies pretty much everywhere. Her lover was not much better. Never having been a strong character, Louis Henri was the type of man who should never have been Prime Minister in the first place.


Louis IV Henri de Bourbon-Conde.jpg
Louis Henri
Still, they managed to hold on to just that position for another two years during which they enjoyed the full gratitude of Marie Leszczynska who was only too well aware as to whom she owed her position. But as it often is with very ambitious people, they simply did not know where to stop. It is quite likely that the idea originated with Madame de Prie. She had long been weary of her lover's rival, the Cardinal Fleury, and now decided that it was time for him to go.

Relying on the debt owed to them by the Queen they manipulated Marie Leszczynska into participating in the plot. Poor Queen! Marie was never a political being and it was easy for the couple to trick her. They convinced her that Louis XV really wanted to get rid of his tutor but was too timid to actually carry out the deed. But it all went wrong when Louis XV found out that his beloved tutor was about to be shipped off. Furious, Louis sent Madame de Prie and Louis Henri into exile and stripped the Duc of his office. It does not seem that the relationship survived the crisis.

House of de La Tour d'Auvergne

Of the old House of de La Tour d'Auvergne it was the younger branch that survived into the Ancien Regime of Versailles.

The head of the younger branch was Godefroy Maurice de La Tour d'Auvergne who was made the first Duc de Bouillon in 1678. Besides this - and several other titles - the family of de La Tour d'Auvergne was recognised as Foreign Princes at court which ensured them a considerable status at court.
Godefroy Maurice had married into the Mazarin family when he married Marie Anne Mancini, a niece of Cardinal Mazarin while Godefroy's younger brother married a Dutch noblewoman and spent most of his time in the Netherlands where he was a successful general. The son of Godefroy Maurice and Marie Anne was Louis de La Tour d'Auvergne who married into the House of Ventadour and would have inherited the title of Duc de Bouillon if he had not died before his parents. The title then passed on to their second eldest son Emmanuel Théodose.

The family's status was further enhanced when the grandson of Godefroy Maurice, Charles Godefroy, married Maria Karolina Sobieska who had royal blood in her veins as the granddaughter of the King of Poland. It was their daughter, Marie Louise Henriette Jeanne, who was famously involved in the affair of the Diamond Necklace and ended her life at the scaffold in 1793. She had been married to a member of the Rohan-family while her brother had married into the Lorraine-family.

Titles held by the House of de La Tour d'Auvergne:
Duc de Bouillon
Comte d'Évreux
Governor of Auvergne
Grand Chamberlain of France
Foreign Prince

fredag den 23. januar 2015

Sickness of Shame: Syphilis

Syphilis was one of those diseases one did not talk about but everyone knew existed. Being sexually transferred it was tabu; quite odd considering that both adultery and liaisons were not only common but accepted. Throughout Europe syphilis also had another name though it is unlikely that it would have won favour with the French: the French pox. In France it was referred to as the "Neapolitan disease".

Syphilis was a particularly nasty type of illness which was impossible to hide from the outside world. Patients suffered first from sore ulcers in the genital area which could later evolve into blindness, paralysis and it was far from uncommon that the nose simply caved into the face. This latter symptom meant the rise of artificial noses which could be enamelled or painted to look as much like the original as possible.

Artificial nose
During the 17th century the doctors relied on mercury as the sole "treatment" for this dreadful disease - it need hardly be said that they had little success. Instead their patients suffered mercury poisonings which included uncontrolled salivation. This treatment gave rise to the saying: "A night with Venus, a lifetime with Mercury". To make matters worse syphilis was a slow killer.

Being sexually transferred it was immediately assumed that anyone who fell victim to the disease led a life of debauchery. In some cases that was indeed the case and since the noblemen of France has never scorned the society of Paris' finer brothels it is very likely. But, there were some who led completely decent lives and who had merely been infected through their (cheating) spouse. The court in which Louis XIV grew up in definitely saw syphilis as a sign of god's wrath for a misspent life. The mother of the unfortunate Fouquet made it clear that she considered the two aspects definitely intertwined.

A so-called "syphilis syringe" used for administering mercury to the wounds
Syphilis was considered not only a disease of debauchery but also one that followed armies like flies after a dung pile. According to Voltaire, in a battle between two forces of 30.000 men each, 20.000 had syphilis.
By 1736 the problem had become so imminent that Jean Astruc, royal physician to Louis XV, wrote one of his greater works on the disease.

Sadly for the courtiers of Versailles, syphilis remained an incurable disease until 1928.

Courtiers who suffered from syphilis:

Francois Louis de Bourbon, Prince de Conti
Henriette de Bourbon-Conti, Duchesse de Chartres
Louis Joseph, Duc de Vêndome
The Duchesse d'Uzès

House of Châtillon

Blason de la maison de Châtillon.svgArea of origin: Champagne

The House of Châtillon made its' first appearance in the 11th century and remained among the French aristocracy well into the Ancien Regime. The line finally went extinct in 1762. Despite the similarity of names the House of Châtillon is not connected to that of Châtillon-sur-Loigne (which possessed the title of Duc de Châtillon).



Titles possessed by the House of Châtillon:

Comte de Châtillon
Comte de Blois
Comte de Saint-Pol
Prince de Porcien
Comte de Tonnerre
Comte de Nevers

torsdag den 22. januar 2015

Houses & Titles: S-T-U-V

S


Duc de Saint-Aignan
      Held by the House of Beauvilliers

Duc de Saint-Cloud
      Traditionally held by the Archbishop of Paris

Duc de Saint-Fargeau
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Orlèans

Comte de Saint-Pol
      Held by the House of Châtillon

Duc de Saint-Simon
      Held by the House of Rouvroy

Comte de Sancerre
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Condé

Comte de Sézanne
      Held by the House of Harcourt

Duc de Soissons
           Held by the House of Bourbon-Condé (until 1692)

           Held by the House of Bourbon-Orlèans (from 1692)

Duc de Stainville
      Held by the House of Choiseul

Duc de Sully
      Held by the House of Béthune-Charost


T

Marquis de Terraube
      Held by the House of Galard

Duc de Thouars
      Held by the House of Le Trémoille

Comte de Thoury
      Held by the House of Clermont-Tonnerre

Prince de Tingry
      Held by the House of Clermont-Tonnerre

Comte de Toulouse
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Penthièvre


Prince de Turenne
      Held by the House of La Tour d'Auvergne
               Reserved for the eldest son (and his wife) of the Duc de Bouillon

U


Duc d'Uzès

      Held by the House of Crussol

V

Duc de La Valliere
      Held by the House of de La Blaume de Blanc (1670-1780)

Duc de Valois
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Orlèans
               Reserved for the son of the Duc d'Orlèans

Duc de Vêndome
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Vêndome

Duc de Ventadour
      Held by the House of Lévis (1589-1717)

Duc de Villars
      Held by the House of Bourbon

Duc de Villars-Brancas
      Held by the House of Brancas

Marquis de Villequier

Duc de Villeroy
       Held by the House of Neufville de Villeroy

Duc de Vivonne
      Held by the House of Rochechouart

Houses & Titles: P-Q-R

P


Duc de Penthièvre
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Vêndome (1608-1696)

      Held by the House of Bourbon-Penthièvre (1697-1793)

Duc de Piney(-Luxembourg)
      Held by the Luxembourgs (1581-1661)

      Held by the House of Montmorency-Luxembourg (1661-1861),
              Transferred through marriage between the daughter of the last of the Luxembourgs to the                   heir of Montmorency

Duc de Poix
      Held by the House of Noailles

Comte de Ponthieu
    Held by the House of Berry

Prince de Porcien
     Held by the House of Châtillon

Duc de Praslin
      Held by the House of Choiseul

Q


-

R


Duc de Rambouillet
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Penthièvre

Duc de Randan
      Held by the House of Rochefoucauld (1661-1677)

      Held by the House of Foix (1677-1714)

Duc de Rethel
      Held by the House of Mazarin

Duc de Retz
      Held by the House of Gondi

Duc de Richelieu
      Held by the House of du Plessis

Duc de Roannis
       Held by the House of Gouffier (1576-1667)

       Held by the House of Le Feuillade (1667-1725)

Duc de La Roche-Guyon
      Held by the House of La Rouchefoucauld

Duc de La Rouchefoucauld
      Held by the House of Rochefoucauld

Duc de Rohan
      Held by the House of Chabot (1648-1655)

      Held by the House of Rohan-Chabot (1655-present)

Duc de Rohan-Rohan
      Held by the House of Rohan-Soubise

Prince de La Rouche-sur-Yon
      Held by the House of Condé

Comte de Roussillon
      Held byt the House of Clermont-Tonnerre

Duc de Roquelaure
      Held by the House of Roquelaure

Duc de Ruffec

       Held by the House of Rouvroy, courtesy title

Houses & Titles: M-N-O

M


Duc du Maine 
      Held by Louis-Auguste de Bourbon, illegitimate son of Louis XIV

Comte de La Marche
      Held by the House of Conti

Duc de Meilleraye
      Held by the House of de La Porte de Mazarin

Duc de Mercoeur
      Held by the House of Lorraine (1524-1669)

      Held by the House of Bourbon-Vêndome (1669-1712)

      Held by the House of Bourbon-Conti (1712-1776)

Marquis de Mirabeau
      Held by the House of Bauffremont

Duc de Mirepox
      Held by the House of Lévis

Duc de Montausier
      Held by the House of Sainte-Maure

Duc de Montbazon
      Held by the House of Rohan

Duc de Montpensier
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Orlèans

Duc de Montmorency
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Condé

Duc de Mortemart 
       Held by the House of Rochechouart


N


Duc de Nemours
      Held by the House of Orlèans

Duc de Nevers (Was sold to Cardinal Mazarin)
      Held by Jules Mazarin (1659-1661)

      Held by the House of Mancini (1661-1798)

Duc de Noailles

      Held by the House of Noailles (since 1663)

O


-

Houses & Titles: J-K-L

J


Duc de Joyeuse

      Held by the House of Melun

K


-

L


Prince de Lamballe
     Held by the House of Bourbon-Penthièvre. Served as a courtesy title for the heir to the duchy

Duc de Lauzun
      Held by the House of Caumont

Duc de Laval
      Held by the House of Montmorency

Duc de Lesdiguières
      Held by the House of Bonne de Blancefort

Duc de Lesparre
      Held by the House of Gramont

Duc de Liancourt
      Held by the House of Rochefoucauld

Comte de Lillebonne
      Held by the House of d’Harcourt

Duc de Luxembourg
      Held by the House of Montmorency

Duc de Luynes
      Held by the House of d'Albert

Houses & Titles: G-H-I

G


Duc de Gesvres
      Held by the House of Poitier

Duc de Gisors
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Penthièvre

Duc de Gramont
      Held by the House of Gramont

Prince de Guéméné
      Held by the House of Rohan

Duc de Guise
      Held by the House of Lorraine (1528-1688)


      Held by the House of Bourbon-Condé (1688-1830)


H


Duc d'Harcourt
      Held by the House of Lorraine

Duc d'Havre
       Held by the House of Cröy

Duc d'Houstin

       Held by the House of d'Houstin

I


-

Houses & Titles: D-E-F

D


Duc de Damville
     Held by the House of Montmorency

Prince de Dombes
     Held by the House of Bourbon-Maine

Comte de Dreux
     Held by the House of Bourbon (1594-1656)

     Held by the House of Savoy-Carignano (1656-1676)

     Held by the House of Longueville (1676-1707)

     Held by the House of Bourbon (1707-1718)

     Held by the House of the Palatinate (1718-1723)

     Held by the House of Bourbon (1723-1793)

Duc de Duras
      Held by the House of Durfort


E


Duc d'Elbeuf
      Held by the House of Lorraine

Duc d'Enghien
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Condé
               Reserved for the eldest son of the Prince de Condé

Comte d’Épinac
      Held by the House of Clermont-Tonnerre

Duc d’Estouteville
      Held by the House of Orlèans-Longueville

Duc d'Estrées
      Held by the House of d'Estrées

Duc / Duchesse d'Etampes
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Condé

Comte d'Eu
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Maine


F


Duc de La Ferté-Senneterre
      Held by the House of Senneterre

Duc de Fleury
     Held by the House of Rosset

Duc de La Force
     Held by the House of Caumont

Duc de Fronsac
      Held by the House of du Plessis

Houses & Titles: A-B-C

A


Comte d'Agenois
      Held by the House of Vignerot du Plessis

Duc d'Aiguillon
      Held by the House of Vignerot du Plessis

Duc d'Albret
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Condé (1641-1651)

      Held by the House of de La Tour d'Auvergne (1651-1790)

Duc d'Amboise
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Penthièvre

Duc d'Antin
      Held by the House of Pardaillon

Comte d'Armagnac
      Held by the House of Lorraine-Guise

Marquis d'Argenson
      Held by the House of de Voyer

Duc d'Arpajon
      Held by the House of d'Arpajon

Duc d'Aumale
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Penthièvre

Duc d'Aumont
      Held by the House of d'Aumont de Rochebaron

Duc d'Auvergne
       Held by the House of Bourbon

Duc d'Ayen

       Held by the House of Noailles


B


Duc de Bar
      Held by the House of Lorraine

Duc de Beaumont
      Held by the House of Luxembourg. Given to the third son of the Duc de Luxembourg

Duc de Beaupréau
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Orlèans

Duc de Beauvilliers
      Held continually by the House of Beauvilliers

Duc de Bellegarde
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Condé

Marquis de Belle-Isle
      Held by the House of Fouquet

Duc de Béthune-Charost
      Held by the House of Béthune-Charost

Duc de Biron
      Held by the House of Gontaut

Comte de Blois
      Held by the House of Orlèans

Duc de Bouillon
      Held by the House of La Tour d’Auvergne

Duc de Bournonville
      Held by the House of Bournonville

Duc de Bourbon
      Held by the House of Condé

Comte de Bousset
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Bousset

Comte de Brienne
      Held by the House of Brienne

Duc de Brissac
      Held by the House of Cossé-Brissac

Duc de Broglie
      Held continually by the House of Broglie



C


Comte de Cagny 
      Held by the House of Boufflers

Prince de Carignan
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Penthièvre (1751-1793)

Baron de Chalus
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Bousset

Duc de Chaulnes
      Held by the House of d'Albert d'Ailly

Duc de Chateauvillain 
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Penthièvre

Duc de Charost
      Held by the House of Béthune

Duc de Chartres
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Orlèans

Marquis de Chaste
       Held by the House of Clermont-Tonnerre

Duc de Château-Thierry
      Held by the House of de La Tour d'Auvergne

Duc de Châteauroux
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Condé

Duc de Châtellerault
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Orlèans

Duc de Châtillon
      Held by the House of Châtillon

Duc de Chevreuse
      Held by the House of d'Albert  

Duc de Choiseul 
       Held by the House of Choiseul

Comte de Clermont
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Condé

Duc de Clermont-Tonnerre
      Held by the House of Clermont-Tonnere

Duc de Coislin
      Held by the House of Cambout

Prince de Condé
      Held by the House of Condé

Prince de Conti
      Held by the House of Condé

Marquis de Courville
      Held by the House of Béthune

Duc de Créquy
      Held by the House of Bonne de Blanchefort


D


Duc de Damville
     Held by the House of Montmorency

Prince de Dombes
     Held by the House of Bourbon-Maine

Comte de Dreux
     Held by the House of Bourbon (1594-1656)

     Held by the House of Savoy-Carignano (1656-1676)

     Held by the House of Longueville (1676-1707)

     Held by the House of Bourbon (1707-1718)

     Held by the House of the Palatinate (1718-1723)

     Held by the House of Bourbon (1723-1793)

Duc de Duras
      Held by the House of Durfort


E


Duc d'Elbeuf
      Held by the House of Lorraine

Duc d'Enghien
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Condé
               Reserved for the eldest son of the Prince de Condé

Comte d’Épinac
      Held by the House of Clermont-Tonnerre

Duc d’Estouteville
      Held by the House of Orlèans-Longueville

Duc d'Estrées
      Held by the House of d'Estrées

Duc / Duchesse d'Etampes
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Condé

Comte d'Eu
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Maine


F


Duc de La Ferté-Senneterre
      Held by the House of Senneterre

Duc de Fleury
     Held by the House of Rosset

Duc de La Force
     Held by the House of Caumont

Duc de Fronsac

      Held by the House of du Plessis

G


Duc de Gesvres
      Held by the House of Poitier

Duc de Gisors
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Penthièvre

Duc de Gramont
      Held by the House of Gramont

Prince de Guéméné
      Held by the House of Rohan

Duc de Guise
      Held by the House of Lorraine (1528-1688)


      Held by the House of Bourbon-Condé (1688-1830)


H


Duc d'Harcourt
      Held by the House of Lorraine

Duc d'Havre
       Held by the House of Cröy

Duc d'Houstin

       Held by the House of d'Houstin

I


J


Duc de Joyeuse

      Held by the House of Melun

K


-

L


Prince de Lamballe
     Held by the House of Bourbon-Penthièvre. Served as a courtesy title for the heir to the duchy

Duc de Lauzun
      Held by the House of Caumont

Duc de Laval
      Held by the House of Montmorency

Duc de Lesdiguières
      Held by the House of Bonne de Blancefort

Duc de Lesparre
      Held by the House of Gramont

Duc de Liancourt
      Held by the House of Rochefoucauld

Comte de Lillebonne
      Held by the House of d’Harcourt

Duc de Luxembourg
      Held by the House of Montmorency

Duc de Luynes
      Held by the House of d'Albert


M


Duc du Maine 
      Held by Louis-Auguste de Bourbon, illegitimate son of Louis XIV

Comte de La Marche
      Held by the House of Conti

Duc de Meilleraye
      Held by the House of de La Porte de Mazarin

Duc de Mercoeur
      Held by the House of Lorraine (1524-1669)

      Held by the House of Bourbon-Vêndome (1669-1712)

      Held by the House of Bourbon-Conti (1712-1776)

Marquis de Mirabeau
      Held by the House of Bauffremont

Duc de Mirepox
      Held by the House of Lévis

Duc de Montausier
      Held by the House of Sainte-Maure

Duc de Montbazon
      Held by the House of Rohan

Duc de Montpensier
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Orlèans

Duc de Montmorency
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Condé

Duc de Mortemart 
       Held by the House of Rochechouart


N


Duc de Nemours
      Held by the House of Orlèans

Duc de Nevers (Was sold to Cardinal Mazarin)
      Held by Jules Mazarin (1659-1661)

      Held by the House of Mancini (1661-1798)

Duc de Noailles

      Held by the House of Noailles (since 1663)


O

P


Duc de Penthièvre
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Vêndome (1608-1696)

      Held by the House of Bourbon-Penthièvre (1697-1793)

Duc de Piney(-Luxembourg)
      Held by the Luxembourgs (1581-1661)

      Held by the House of Montmorency-Luxembourg (1661-1861),
              Transferred through marriage between the daughter of the last of the Luxembourgs to the                   heir of Montmorency

Duc de Poix
      Held by the House of Noailles

Comte de Ponthieu
    Held by the House of Berry

Prince de Porcien
     Held by the House of Châtillon

Duc de Praslin
      Held by the House of Choiseul

Q


-

R


Duc de Rambouillet
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Penthièvre

Duc de Randan
      Held by the House of Rochefoucauld (1661-1677)

      Held by the House of Foix (1677-1714)

Duc de Rethel
      Held by the House of Mazarin

Duc de Retz
      Held by the House of Gondi

Duc de Richelieu
      Held by the House of du Plessis

Duc de Roannis
       Held by the House of Gouffier (1576-1667)

       Held by the House of Le Feuillade (1667-1725)

Duc de La Roche-Guyon
      Held by the House of La Rouchefoucauld

Duc de La Rouchefoucauld
      Held by the House of Rochefoucauld

Duc de Rohan
      Held by the House of Chabot (1648-1655)

      Held by the House of Rohan-Chabot (1655-present)

Duc de Rohan-Rohan
      Held by the House of Rohan-Soubise

Prince de La Rouche-sur-Yon
      Held by the House of Condé

Comte de Roussillon
      Held byt the House of Clermont-Tonnerre

Duc de Roquelaure
      Held by the House of Roquelaure

Duc de Ruffec

       Held by the House of Rouvroy, courtesy title

S


Duc de Saint-Aignan
      Held by the House of Beauvilliers

Duc de Saint-Cloud
      Traditionally held by the Archbishop of Paris

Duc de Saint-Fargeau
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Orlèans

Comte de Saint-Pol
      Held by the House of Châtillon

Duc de Saint-Simon
      Held by the House of Rouvroy

Comte de Sancerre
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Condé

Comte de Sézanne
      Held by the House of Harcourt

Duc de Soissons
           Held by the House of Bourbon-Condé (until 1692)

           Held by the House of Bourbon-Orlèans (from 1692)

Duc de Stainville
      Held by the House of Choiseul

Duc de Sully
      Held by the House of Béthune-Charost


T

Marquis de Terraube
      Held by the House of Galard

Duc de Thouars
      Held by the House of Le Trémoille

Comte de Thoury
      Held by the House of Clermont-Tonnerre

Prince de Tingry
      Held by the House of Clermont-Tonnerre

Comte de Toulouse
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Penthièvre


Prince de Turenne
      Held by the House of La Tour d'Auvergne
               Reserved for the eldest son (and his wife) of the Duc de Bouillon

U


Duc d'Uzès

      Held by the House of Crussol

V


Duc de La Valliere
      Held by the House of de La Blaume de Blanc (1670-1780)

Duc de Valois
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Orlèans
               Reserved for the son of the Duc d'Orlèans

Duc de Vêndome
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Vêndome

Duc de Ventadour
      Held by the House of Lévis (1589-1717)

Duc de Villars
      Held by the House of Bourbon

Duc de Villars-Brancas
      Held by the House of Brancas

Marquis de Villequier

Duc de Villeroy
       Held by the House of Neufville de Villeroy

Duc de Vivonne
      Held by the House of Rochechouart

Houses & Titles

The French nobility during the Ancien Regime was a complicated net of titles and families. To make it even more complicated the families could not be distinguished merely by the title the head of the family had. Most noble families had several titles and intermarriage meant that titles changed hands several times over. I have tried to combine a list of the individual titles and the families they belonged to.

The titles are listed alphabetically and are followed by the family that held it. Note that the possession of a title of duke does not necessarily mean the possession of the actual duchy. Also, some titles are taken directly from the family's name.

A


Comte d'Agenois
      Held by the House of Vignerot du Plessis

Duc d'Aiguillon
      Held by the House of Vignerot du Plessis

Duc d'Albret
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Condé (1641-1651)

      Held by the House of de La Tour d'Auvergne (1651-1790)

Duc d'Amboise
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Penthièvre

Duc d'Antin
      Held by the House of Pardaillon

Comte d'Armagnac
      Held by the House of Lorraine-Guise

Marquis d'Argenson
      Held by the House of de Voyer

Duc d'Arpajon
      Held by the House of d'Arpajon

Duc d'Aumale
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Penthièvre

Duc d'Aumont
      Held by the House of d'Aumont de Rochebaron

Duc d'Auvergne
       Held by the House of Bourbon

Duc d'Ayen
       Held by the House of Noailles


B


Duc de Bar
      Held by the House of Lorraine

Duc de Beaumont
      Held by the House of Luxembourg. Given to the third son of the Duc de Luxembourg

Duc de Beaupréau
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Orlèans

Duc de Beauvilliers
      Held continually by the House of Beauvilliers

Duc de Bellegarde
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Condé

Marquis de Belle-Isle
      Held by the House of Fouquet

Duc de Béthune-Charost
      Held by the House of Béthune-Charost

Duc de Biron
      Held by the House of Gontaut

Comte de Blois
      Held by the House of Orlèans

Duc de Bouillon
      Held by the House of La Tour d’Auvergne

Duc de Bournonville
      Held by the House of Bournonville

Duc de Bourbon
      Held by the House of Condé

Comte de Bousset
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Bousset

Comte de Brienne
      Held by the House of Brienne

Duc de Brissac
      Held by the House of Cossé-Brissac

Duc de Broglie
      Held continually by the House of Broglie



C


Comte de Cagny 
      Held by the House of Boufflers

Prince de Carignan
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Penthièvre (1751-1793)

Baron de Chalus
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Bousset

Duc de Chaulnes
      Held by the House of d'Albert d'Ailly

Duc de Chateauvillain 
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Penthièvre

Duc de Charost
      Held by the House of Béthune

Duc de Chartres
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Orlèans

Marquis de Chaste
       Held by the House of Clermont-Tonnerre

Duc de Château-Thierry
      Held by the House of de La Tour d'Auvergne

Duc de Châteauroux
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Condé

Duc de Châtellerault
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Orlèans

Duc de Châtillon
      Held by the House of Châtillon

Duc de Chevreuse
      Held by the House of d'Albert  

Duc de Choiseul 
       Held by the House of Choiseul

Comte de Clermont
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Condé

Duc de Clermont-Tonnerre
      Held by the House of Clermont-Tonnere

Duc de Coislin
      Held by the House of Cambout

Prince de Condé
      Held by the House of Condé

Prince de Conti
      Held by the House of Condé

Marquis de Courville
      Held by the House of Béthune

Duc de Créquy
      Held by the House of Bonne de Blanchefort

D


Duc de Damville
     Held by the House of Montmorency

Prince de Dombes
     Held by the House of Bourbon-Maine

Comte de Dreux
     Held by the House of Bourbon (1594-1656)

     Held by the House of Savoy-Carignano (1656-1676)

     Held by the House of Longueville (1676-1707)

     Held by the House of Bourbon (1707-1718)

     Held by the House of the Palatinate (1718-1723)

     Held by the House of Bourbon (1723-1793)

Duc de Duras
      Held by the House of Durfort


E


Duc d'Elbeuf
      Held by the House of Lorraine

Duc d'Enghien
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Condé
               Reserved for the eldest son of the Prince de Condé

Comte d’Épinac
      Held by the House of Clermont-Tonnerre

Duc d’Estouteville
      Held by the House of Orlèans-Longueville

Duc d'Estrées
      Held by the House of d'Estrées

Duc / Duchesse d'Etampes
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Condé

Comte d'Eu
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Maine


F


Duc de La Ferté-Senneterre
      Held by the House of Senneterre

Duc de Fleury
     Held by the House of Rosset

Duc de La Force
     Held by the House of Caumont

Duc de Fronsac
      Held by the House of du Plessis

G


Duc de Gesvres
      Held by the House of Poitier

Duc de Gisors
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Penthièvre

Duc de Gramont
      Held by the House of Gramont

Prince de Guéméné
      Held by the House of Rohan

Duc de Guise
      Held by the House of Lorraine (1528-1688)


      Held by the House of Bourbon-Condé (1688-1830)


H


Duc d'Harcourt
      Held by the House of Lorraine

Duc d'Havre
       Held by the House of Cröy

Duc d'Houstin
       Held by the House of d'Houstin

I


J


Duc de Joyeuse
      Held by the House of Melun

K



L


Prince de Lamballe
     Held by the House of Bourbon-Penthièvre. Served as a courtesy title for the heir to the duchy

Duc de Lauzun
      Held by the House of Caumont

Duc de Laval
      Held by the House of Montmorency

Duc de Lesdiguières
      Held by the House of Bonne de Blancefort

Duc de Lesparre
      Held by the House of Gramont

Duc de Liancourt
      Held by the House of Rochefoucauld

Comte de Lillebonne
      Held by the House of d’Harcourt

Duc de Luxembourg
      Held by the House of Montmorency

Duc de Luynes
      Held by the House of d'Albert

M


Duc du Maine 
      Held by Louis-Auguste de Bourbon, illegitimate son of Louis XIV

Comte de La Marche
      Held by the House of Conti

Duc de Meilleraye
      Held by the House of de La Porte de Mazarin

Duc de Mercoeur
      Held by the House of Lorraine (1524-1669)

      Held by the House of Bourbon-Vêndome (1669-1712)

      Held by the House of Bourbon-Conti (1712-1776)

Marquis de Mirabeau
      Held by the House of Bauffremont

Duc de Mirepox
      Held by the House of Lévis

Duc de Montausier
      Held by the House of Sainte-Maure

Duc de Montbazon
      Held by the House of Rohan

Duc de Montpensier
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Orlèans

Duc de Montmorency
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Condé

Duc de Mortemart 
       Held by the House of Rochechouart


N


Duc de Nemours
      Held by the House of Orlèans

Duc de Nevers (Was sold to Cardinal Mazarin)
      Held by Jules Mazarin (1659-1661)

      Held by the House of Mancini (1661-1798)

Duc de Noailles
      Held by the House of Noailles (since 1663)


O

P


Duc de Penthièvre
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Vêndome (1608-1696)

      Held by the House of Bourbon-Penthièvre (1697-1793)

Duc de Piney(-Luxembourg)
      Held by the Luxembourgs (1581-1661)

      Held by the House of Montmorency-Luxembourg (1661-1861),
              Transferred through marriage between the daughter of the last of the Luxembourgs to the                   heir of Montmorency

Duc de Poix
    Held by the House of Noailles

Comte de Ponthieu
    Held by the House of Berry

Prince de Porcien
     Held by the House of Châtillon

Duc de Praslin
      Held by the House of Choiseul

Q


-

R


Duc de Rambouillet
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Penthièvre

Duc de Randan
      Held by the House of Rochefoucauld (1661-1677)

      Held by the House of Foix (1677-1714)

Duc de Rethel
      Held by the House of Mazarin

Duc de Retz
      Held by the House of Gondi

Duc de Richelieu
      Held by the House of du Plessis

Duc de Roannis
       Held by the House of Gouffier (1576-1667)

       Held by the House of Le Feuillade (1667-1725)

Duc de La Roche-Guyon
      Held by the House of La Rouchefoucauld

Duc de La Rouchefoucauld
      Held by the House of Rochefoucauld

Duc de Rohan
      Held by the House of Chabot (1648-1655)

      Held by the House of Rohan-Chabot (1655-present)

Duc de Rohan-Rohan
      Held by the House of Rohan-Soubise

Prince de La Rouche-sur-Yon
      Held by the House of Condé

Comte de Roussillon
      Held byt the House of Clermont-Tonnerre

Duc de Roquelaure
      Held by the House of Roquelaure

Duc de Ruffec
       Held by the House of Rouvroy, courtesy title

S


Duc de Saint-Aignan
      Held by the House of Beauvilliers

Duc de Saint-Cloud
      Traditionally held by the Archbishop of Paris

Duc de Saint-Fargeau
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Orlèans

Comte de Saint-Pol
      Held by the House of Châtillon

Duc de Saint-Simon
      Held by the House of Rouvroy

Comte de Sancerre
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Condé

Comte de Sézanne
      Held by the House of Harcourt

Duc de Soissons
           Held by the House of Bourbon-Condé (until 1692)

           Held by the House of Bourbon-Orlèans (from 1692)

Duc de Stainville
      Held by the House of Choiseul

Duc de Sully
      Held by the House of Béthune-Charost


T

Marquis de Terraube
      Held by the House of Galard

Duc de Thouars
      Held by the House of Le Trémoille

Comte de Thoury
      Held by the House of Clermont-Tonnerre

Prince de Tingry
      Held by the House of Clermont-Tonnerre

Comte de Toulouse
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Penthièvre


Prince de Turenne
      Held by the House of La Tour d'Auvergne
               Reserved for the eldest son (and his wife) of the Duc de Bouillon

U


Duc d'Uzès
      Held by the House of Crussol

V


Duc de La Valliere
      Held by the House of de La Blaume de Blanc (1670-1780)

Duc de Valois
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Orlèans
               Reserved for the son of the Duc d'Orlèans

Duc de Vêndome
      Held by the House of Bourbon-Vêndome

Duc de Ventadour
      Held by the House of Lévis (1589-1717)

Duc de Villars
      Held by the House of Bourbon

Duc de Villars-Brancas
      Held by the House of Brancas

Marquis de Villequier

Duc de Villeroy
       Held by the House of Neufville de Villeroy

Duc de Vivonne
      Held by the House of Rochechouart