Saturday, 22 September 2018

House of d'Estrées

Originating from the region of Boulonnais at the very northern edge of France, the family first really made their advance at court with Gabrielle d'Estrées. The infamously beautiful Gabrielle caught the eye of Henri IV and became his mistress. Through their liaison her family was showered with riches and favours. The original family of d'Estrées separated into three branches: the seigneurs of Boulant, the Marquises de Cæuvres (and Ducs d'Estrées) and the Comtes (later Ducs) d'Estrées. The former branch died out in the male line in the 16th century. Therefore, only the latter two branches are explored beneath - however notice that the third patriarch is numbered as the fourth; that is because the last holder of the seigneurship of Boulant was Antoine III.

Marquis de Cæuvres and Duc d'Estrées 

1. François Annibal I d'Estrées and (I) Marie de Béthune, (II) Anne Habert de Montmort, (III) Gabrielle de Longueval

François Annibal was originally destined for a life in the church but began a military career instead when his elder brother died. Until then the patriarch of the family was known as the Marquis de Cæuvres but Louis XIV had the family elevated to the title of Duc d'Estrées. Furthermore, he was granted governorship of Soissons, Laon and Île-de-France. François died at the ripe age of 98 (!) on 5 May 1670.

Marie Béthune had married François Annibal in 1622 and had three children by him. However, she died suddenly at the age of just 26 years in 1628. Their children were:

  • François Annibal, Duc d'Estrées
  • Jean, Comte - later Duc - d'Estrées
  • César d'Estrées, Cardinal

Anne Habert had been married once before to Charles de Thémines when she married François Annibal. She died at Nanteuil in 1661 but before that she had two children by her second husband:

  • Louis d'Estrées, Marquis d'Estrées (courtesy title)
  • Christine d'Estrées, Comtesse de Lillebonne

Gabrielle was married to François Annibal in 1663 and died in 1687 - however, she had no children.

Relateret billede
François Annibal I

2. François Annibal II d'Estrées and Catherine de Lauzières-Thémine 

Besides the titles he inherited from his father François Annibal II was made ambassador extraordinary to Rome. As it happens this is where he died of apoplexy; in his honour pope Innocent XI treated his corpse with the honours usually reserved for princes. His body was transferred to France and buried next to his father.

Catherine married François II in 1647 and had three children by him:

  • François III d'Estrées, Duc d'Estrées
  • Louis Charles d'Estrées, Marquis de Thémines
  • Jean d'Estrées,  Duc and Archbishop of Laon

3. François Annibal III d'Estrées and (I) Madeleine de Lionne, (II) Madeleine Diane Bautru

François Annibal III added a knighthood of the Order of the King to his already impressive list of titles as well as Master of Cavalry Camp.

Madeleine was the daughter of a minister of state and married to François Annibal III in February 1670. Apparently, her behaviour earned her somewhat of a reputation. She died in 1684 The couple had five children:

  • Louis Armand d'Estrées, Duc d'Estrées
  • Constance Léonore d'Estrées, Comtesse d'Ampus
  • Marie Yolande d'Estrées
  • Felicité Perpétue d'Estrées, nun
  • Louise Hélène d'Estrées, nun
Madeleine Diane was the daughter of the Marquis de Vaubrun; she was twenty years younger than François Annibal when the two married in 1688. She outlived her husband by 55 years! The couple had three children:
  • César François Annibal d'Estrées, Comte de Nanteuil
  • Diane Françoise Thérèse d'Estrées
  • Marie Madeleine d'Estrées

4. Louis-Armand d'Estrées and Diane Mazarini-Mancini

Louis-Armand was further granted the governorships of Noyon, Domme and Soissonais.

Diane was related to cardinal Mazarin and married Louis-Armand in 1707. However, the couple had no children and both died relatively young.

Comte d'Estrées and Duc d'Estrées 

5. Jean II d'Estrées and Marie Marguerite Morin 

Jean was the second son of François Annibal d'Estrées and Marie de Béthune; he was granted the titles of Comte d'Estrées, Comte de Nanteul le Haudouin and Comte de Tourpes amongst others. He was also made a knight of the Order of the King and Viceroy of New France.

Marie Marguerite was the eldest daughter of a secretary of state; she married Jean in 1658. She found herself the enemy of Madame de Coulanges, a friend of Madame de Sévigné, because the two disagreed on whether the play "Esther" was any good. The couple had six children:

  • Victor Marie d'Estrées, Duc d'Estrées
  • Jean d'Estrées, Abbé de Villeneuve
  • Jean César d'Estrées
  • Marie Anne d'Estrées, nun
  • Marie Anne Catherine d'Estrées, Marquise de Courtanvaux
  • Elisabeth Rosalie d'Estrées

Jean II d'Estrées
Comte d'Estrées

6. Victor Marie d'Estrées and Lucie Félicité de Noailles

Victor Marie was virtually showered in titles. Besides the dukedom of d'Estrées, he was a Grandee of Spain, Duc de Cæuvres, held seven seigneurships, Viceroy of New France, knight of the Order of the King etc. etc. He was even chosen by Louis XIV as a member of the regency council and led the council of the Navy. He certainly had seen his fair share of fighting; he partook in the campaigns of Holland, the League of Augsburg and the War of the Spanish Succession.
Victor was also an avid art collector and amassed quite an impressive collection. Such a rounded man was bound to attract some attention; when Peter I of Russia visited Paris in 1717 he made it a point to seek out the famous Vice-Admiral.

Lucie Félicité was married to Victor Marie by contract in 1698. The couple had no children.

Victor Marie d'Estrées
Victor Marie 

When Victor Marie and Lucie Félicité had no children the title went to Louis Charles César de Le Tellier. His mother was Marie Anne d'Estrées, daughter of Jean II d'Estrées.

Titles held by the family:
Duc d'Estrées
Duc de Cæuvres
Duc and Archbishop of Laon
Marquis de Thémines
Marquis de Cardaillac
Comte d'Estrées
Comte de Nanteuil le Haudouin
Comte de Tourpes
Vicomte de Soissons
Vicomte de Pierrefonds
Baron de Gourdon-Labouriane
Baron de Boulonnais

Interesting facts:

  • Jean d'Estrées, bishop of Villeneuve was made ambassador to Spain when he accompanied Cardinal d'Estrées (his uncle) there in 1701
  • Marie Yolande d'Estrées died just two months after her marriage to a captain 
  • A great deal of the family were buried in the convent of Feuillants in Soissons
  • Father Anselm claimed that François Annibal I had had an illegitimate child whom he later legitimized 
  • Jean d'Estrées, bishop of Laon was raised a companion to Louis XIV

Family portraits:

Billedresultat for François Annibal III d'Estrées
Antoine d'Estrées - the founder of the first ducal

Jean d'estrées abbé de conches bm 116 par Randon.jpg
Jean d'Estrées, bishop of Laon

Image illustrative de l’article César d'Estrées
Cardinal César d'Estrées

1 comment:

  1. Would you happen to know who Marie Anne Catherine d'Estrées, Marquise de Courtanvaux, married?