tirsdag den 7. oktober 2014

BONUS: The French Peerages as of 1789

All peers had to be registered before they were considered to be valid; this also applied when someone inherited a title no matter how long the title had been in the family. By 1789 there were 54 people who held 66 peerages (or titles) - these were the very top of the top, the absolute elite of French society. These peerages could only be held by either Princes of the Blood or Dukes.

The titles below are listed with the year they were registered which means the year that the title was either inherited or bestowed but most is of the former category. So, keep in mind that it is not the year the title was actually created since that would cause a great confusion. The group is divided into two categories: ecclesiastic peerages (6) and lay peerages (60). First are named the title followed by the name of the holder. The year in the bracket is the date and year the title was (re)-registered.

 1. The lay peerages 

The First rank - two peerages held by Princes of the Blood:

d'Anjou (3 May 1771) and d'Alencon (7 January 1775): Louis-Stanislas-Xavier de Bourbon, Comte de Provence and brother of Louis XVI

Chateauroux (5 July 1776) and Poitou (this title was formerly Auvergne and Mercoeur, 12 November 1776): Charles-Philippe de Bourbon, Comte d'Artois and brother of Louis XVI



The Second Rank - ten peerages held by Princes of the Blood:

Duc d'Angoulême (12 November 1773): Louis-Antoine, Duc d'Angoulême, eldest son of Comte d'Artois



Duc de Berry (5 July 1776): Charles Ferdinand, youngest son of the Comte d'Artois

Duc d'Orlèans (10 May 1661), Duc de Valois (10 May 1661) and Nemours (3 September 1672): Louis-Philippe-Joseph d'Orlèans (voted for the execution of Louis XVI)

Duc de Chartres (10 May  1661): Louis-Philippe d'Orlèans, eldest son of the Duc d'Orlèans

Duc de Montpensier (20 April 1695): Antoine-Philippe d'Orlèans, second son of the Duc d'Orlèans

Duc de Guise (30 July 1704): Louis Joseph de Bourbon, Prince de Conde

Duc de Bourbon (5 April 1661): Louis-Henri de Bourbon, only son of the Duc de Guise

Duc d'Enghien (formerly Montmorency, 1689): Louis-Antoine-Henri de Bourbon, only son of the Duc de Bourbon

The Third Rank - seven titles held by one legitimised Prince:

Penthievre (16 December 1698), Chateauvillain (29 August 1703), Rambouillet (29 July 1711), Eu (peerage extended 1775), Aumale (14 July 1776), Gisors (7 February 1777) and Amboise (7 December 1787): Louis-Jean-Marie de Bourbon, son of the Comte de Toulouse who was the illegitimate son of Louis XIV.


The Fourth Rank - thirty-five peerages held by thirty-three Ducs:

Duc d'Uzes (3 March 1572): Francois-Emmanuel de Crussol, inherited the title

Duc d'Elbeuf (29 March 1582): Charles-Eugene de Lorraine-Guise, inherited the title

Duc de Montbazon (13 March 1595): Jules-Hercule de Rohan, inherited the title

Duc de Thouars (7 December 1599): Jean-Bretagne-Charles-Godefroy de La Trémoille, inherited the title

Duc de Sully (9 March 1606): Maximilien-Gabriel-Louis de Bethune d'Orval, inherited the title

Duc de Luynes (14 November 1619): Louis-Joseph-Charles d'Albert, inherited the title

Duc de Brissac (8 July 1620): Louis-Hercule-Timoleon de Cosse, inherited the title

Duc de Richelieu (4 September 1621) and de Fronsac (5 July 1634): Louis-Antoine-Sophie de Vignerot du Plessis, inherited the title

Duc de Rohan (15 July 1652),Duc d'Albret and de Chateau-Thierry: Louis-Marie de Rohan-Chabot, inherited the title

Duc de Piney (29 December 1581, but ranked from 1662): Anne-Charles-Sigismond de Montmorency-Luxembourg, inherited the title

Duc de Gramont (15 December 1663): Louis-Antoine de Gramont, inherited the title

Duc de Villeroy (15 December 1663): Gabriel-Louis de Neufville, inherited the title

Duc de Mortemart (15 December 1663): Victurnien-Jean-Baptiste de Rochechouart, inherited the title

Duc de Saint-Aignan (registered 15 December 1663): Paul-Marie-Victoire de Beauvilliers, inherited the title

Duc de Noailles (15 December 1663): Louis de Noailles, inherited the title

Duc d'Aumont (2 December 1665): Louis-Marie-Guy d'Aumont, inherited the title

Duc de Gesvres (formerly Tresmes; changed in 1670): Louis-Joachim de Potier, inherited the title

Duc de Saint-Cloud (18 August 1690): Antoine-Eleonore-Leon le Clerc de Juigne, inherited the title

Duc de Bethune-Charost (18 August  1690): Armand-Joseph de Bethune-Charost, inherited the title

Duc d'Harcourt (28 February 1710): Francois-Henri d'Harcourt, inherited the title

Duc de FitzJames ( 23 May  1710): Jacques Charles Fitz-James, inherited the title

Duc de Chaulnes (1 December 1711): Marie-Joseph-Louis d'Albert d'Ailly, inherited the title

Duc de Villars-Brancas (5 September 1716): Louis de Brancas, inherited the title

Duc de Valentinois and de Nevers (31 December 1720): Louis-Jules-Barbon Mazarini-Mancini, inherited the title

Duc de Biron (22 February 1723): Armand-Louis de Gontaut, inherited the title

Duc d'Aiguillon (peerage re-registered 28 May  1731): Armand-Desire du Plessis, inherited the title

Duc de Fleury (14 March 1736): Andre-Hercule-Marie-Louis de Rosset, inherited the title

Duc de Duras (25 June 1756): Emmanuel-Felicite de Durfort, title created for the holder

Duc de La Vauguyon (15 December 1758): Paul-Francois de Quelen de Stuer de Caussade, inherited the title

Duc de Praslin (10 December 1762): Renaud-Cesar-Louis de Choiseul, 2nd duc de Praslin, inherited the title

Duc de La Rochefoucauld (orginally registered 04 September 1631; transmission through marriage 1762; registered 24 April 1769): Louis-Alexandre de La Rochefoucauld, inherited the title

Duc de Clermont-Tonnerre (5 July 1775): Charles-Henri-Jules de Clermont-Tonnerre, inherited the title

Duc de Choiseul (10 December 1787) and d'Aubigny: Claude-Cleradus-Gabriel de Choiseul-Beaupre, title created for holder

Duc de Coigny (14 December 1787): Marie-Francois-Henri de Franquetot, title created for holder (last title created by Louis XVI)

The Fifth Rank - four peerages held by three foreign holders:

Sovereign duchy of Bouillon:
Duc d'Albret and de Chateau-Thierry (both peerages registered 02 December 1665): Godefroid-Charles de La Tour Avergne, 

Sovereign Principality of Monaco:
Duc de Valentinois (2 September 1716):  Honore-Anne-Charles-Maurice Goyon de Matignon-Grimaldi

Duchy of Richmond and Lennox (United Kingdom and Ireland):
Duc d'Aubigny (1 July 1777): James Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond and 3rd Duke of Lennox 

    

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