mandag den 30. september 2013

Tip Toe Gallantry - the Rules of a Ball

Louis XIV's reign saw the emergence of court balls on a completely new level since they were now also a perfect for making new acquaintances or advancing - but only if you remembered the court etiquette while enjoying yourself. When Louis XIV was a young King it was custom that one ball was held every week; when France was at war the number of balls rose to give not only the people but other countries the impression that France was indeed grandiose and plentiful. Just imagine how much money went to furnish yourself with a fashionable new gown! This continuing stream of balls also meant that more dances were introduced and if you wanted to stay ahead you have to learn them all. Consequently, it became custom for courtiers to learn between 2-4 new dances every year!


  • Those who could be invited to a court ball hosted by the King was those who held the Honours of the Court whereas those who had the Honours of Versailles would rarely be seen at these social gatherings - if ever!


  • When the ball was to be held was up to the King alone to decide just like the ball begun by the King himself. He would do so by rising which meant that no other courtier could remain seated - unless they had a specific arrangement with the King - which made it the perfect opportunity to began the dancing.
  • The first type of dance was a so-called danse à deux (dance for two) and could be a gavotte, a branle or the very popular menuet
  • The dancing was always performed in a very specific order; first the King and Queen would dance during which the courtiers were expected to stand. After them it all came down to precedence again so the Dauphin and Dauphine would most likely be next followed by other blood relatives to the crown. Meanwhile the dancers would be scrutinized thoroughly by those who did not dance.

  • These were just some of the very basic rules. Others also count these specific ones; notice that the etiquette was decided by the gender of the courtier which meant that women did not follow the same rules as men (just to make it even more complicated):

  • Whenever a lady arrived at a ball she was expected to turn her body towards the hostess, smile and make a short - yet witty - remark. A man was to bow before his female host and also make a short remark. 

  • Likewise you did not just go over and talk to someone you did not know. In order to be introduced to new people a lady would be asked whether she wished the introduction and could only be introduced by the host/hostess or her companion - a woman always had a companion at balls. If the unknown guest was a woman the lady would do as she had done with the hostess. However, if it was a man it depended on whether he was married or not. If he was then she ought to make a nice comment and if he was not to smile and repeat his name when introduced. Gentlemen who were introduced to an unmarried woman it was necessary for his companion to ask the lady first (imagine how awkward it was when she said no...). Then the strangers could meet.

  • Before a dance were to begin it was always the gentleman who asked the lady to dance - the other way around was unthinkable. Once again the gentleman must first ask the lady herself or her companion for permission. The positive thing was that the risk of being stood up was next to none since it was considered a promise by the gentleman and as such his honour depended on his keeping it. When the dance is over the gentleman would offer his arm to the lady and then lead her to a seat where she would "free" him from his promise of a dance so that he could make another.

This looks like a private ball

lørdag den 28. september 2013

A Genuine Fondness

Armand de Vignerot du Plessis, Duc de Richelieu is one of the greatest womanisers of the entire l'ancien régieme (so prepare to see much more of him in this section!). His longest affair was with Émilie du Châtelet. They first met in 1729 and began their affair when Armand was 34 and Émilie was 24 years old.



The two had a connection prior to their own relationship since Armand's sister had married Émilie's brother-in-law. During their time together a genuine interest grew between the two and Armand discovered that Émilie was interested in a variety of subjects some of which he had a thorough knowledge. Consequently, he encouraged her in hiring several professors to teach her higher mathematics and the likes - the subjects were normally never considered in a woman's education. Richelieu absolutely adored her bright mind and saw no reason to feel intimidated - or even emasculated - by it. Due to his high rank it is possible that Armand put Émilie in contact with these bright-minded professors.



Jean-Marc Nattier (1685-1766) - Portret van maarschalk hertog Richelieu - Lissabon Museu Calouste Gulbenkian 21-10-2010 13-34-54.jpg


The affair lasted 18 months which is longer than any other of Richelieu's many affairs; it should also be noticed that he had no other mistresses during this time period. The special thing about this relationship is that unlike many other liaisons at Versailles it was more than just a physical attraction. When their affair was no longer physical they continued a good friendship for 16 years only ending due to Émilie's death. They wrote countless letters to each other. There appear to have been no jealousy whatsoever between the couple (Émilie was married) and she even attended Armand's wedding in 1734.
So, this affair between the eager and talented student Émilie and the infamous womaniser Armand turned out to be far more than just sex - it was a relationship of devotion and respect.

torsdag den 26. september 2013

Beauty Spots - More Than Just a Mark

Beauty spots first appeared in the Roman empire and since the 18th century took a lot of inspiration from the Antiquity it seems almost appropriate to take some beauty advice as well. When the French courtiers adapted the trend it became a way to give small signals to your fellow courtiers - mostly about romantic affairs or personality traits.

Both men and women wore beauty patches that could be made of black fabric such as taffeta, silk, velvet or leather. The patches were cut out in little shapes; circles, hearts, stars and crescents. To make the little patch actually stick to the face one side would be smeared with a sticky substance produced by sapping a tree. Many courtiers used patches to cover the severe scaring that was the inevitable consequence of catching smallpox. Like most other fashions at this time even the patches became more and more elaborate over time. Eventually patches could be shaped as carriages or ships and most courtiers carried extras with them just in case!

The Louisbourg Institute gives us this explanation as to what a beauty patch's location means:

    • Lower lip: discreet
    • Middle of cheek: gallant
    • Middle of forehead: dignified
    • Besides the mouth: kissable 
    • Corner of the eye: passionate
    • Between the mouth and chin: silent
    • Heart-shape on the right cheek: married
    • Heart-shape on the left cheek: engaged
    • On the nasolabial fold: playfull
Sometimes the patch could also be placed on the shoulder or at the cleavage. The patches were normally kept in elaborately decorated porcelain boxes often decorated with pretty motifs such as flowers. In the end the trend vanished when the vaccine against smallpox was invented in 1796.





onsdag den 25. september 2013

Charlotte Aglaé d'Orléans, Duchesse de Modène (Modena)

Charlotte Aglaé was born on 20 October 1700 as a Princesse du Sang or a Princess of the Blood. Like most other young girls of the nobility she was sent to a convent to learn how to behave modestly and obediently. In Charlotte Aglaé's case these convents would be those of Chelles and Val-de-Grâce. During her time in the last mentioned Abbey she came close to marrying Louis Armand de Bourbon but the match never happened because Louis XIV intervened.
Two other marriages were proposed when Charlotte Aglaé had moved back into the Palais Royal in Paris: one was to Louis Auguste de Bourbon, Prince de Dombes and another to Louis Auguste de Bourbon, Duc de Maine. However, this time it was Charlotte who refused to marry. Instead she went on to live at the Château de Saint-Cloud where her grandmother (known simply as Madame at court) resided.

tirsdag den 24. september 2013

Mighty France and Humble America

Statue by Charles Gabriel Sauvage Lemire commemorating Louis XVI and Benjamin Franklin meeting.

These two gentlemen are both well-known to history: Louis XVI to the left and Benjamin Franklin to the right. The French King is seen having put his signature on the treaty between France and the colony America from 1778. The porcelain figure was made between 1780-1785 in Lorraine. The artist is Charles-Gabriel Sauvage dit Lemire. Notice that the difference in rank is made very clear: the King is elevated not only in posture but also by being placed on a platform whereas the diplomat is bowing and standing on the ground. Also, the King is wearing an armour which is a direct reference to the militaristic support promised - and given - by the French.

A New Sister?

In "A Break During the Hunt" Van Loo shows Louis XV and Pauline Nesle moving right along, while Louise and Diana watch them very closely; the king had a simultaneous affair with all four Nestle sisters, the fourth, Marie-Ann is not in the picture.

This is Van Loo's "A Break During the Hunt" portrays Louis XV wearing a blue coat with golden decorations in deep conversation with a young lady wearing an orange and white gown. This young lady happens to be Pauline Nesle, one of the Nesle sister with whom the King had affairs with four of them. Behind them are two ladies both in golden orange coats who are both watching the couple intensely. They are none other than Pauline's sisters Diana and Louise who had also shared the King's bed at one point or another - there is a scandal in the air! The last sister is not featured in this portrait but Van Loo clearly shows what the painting is really about.

A Peculiar Choice


Norma Shearer wears this unusual gown in "Marie Antoinette" from 1938. This is a very unique design for any dress used in a Marie Antoinette movie of what I have seen.
The base's colour is cream and seems to be either velvet or cotton. Large twirling patterns adorns the skirt in black and turquoise edged by burned beige. Notice that the skirt is slightly shorter at the front which has probably been done to make it easier for Norma Shearer to walk in the dress. The turquoise cut-outs brings focus to the centre of the bodice which underlines the slim waistline. The neckline is edged with black velvet and the black pattern is continued in a single row a few centimetres beneath the neckline's cut - a pretty bow brings a focus point to the centre again.

The sleeves also have the peculiar pattern and the mandatory layers of lace in a dark cream.

mandag den 23. september 2013

Adrienne de Noailles, Marquise de La Fayette

Marie Adrienne Françoise de Noailles was born on 2 November 1759 in Paris where her family's Hôtel de Noailles were situated. Like every other girl born into the nobility Adrienne (pretty much everyone was named "Marie", so she was known as Adrienne) was to enter an arranged marriage. Hers was celebrated on 11 April 1774 at the Hôtel de Noailles - she was married to Gilbert de Motier, Marquis de La Fayette. With an annual income of what amounts to 935.032 pounds (or 1,5 million dollars) he was very well off. Two years later Adrienne gave birth to the couple's first child, a daughter named Henriette, who would die at just under 2 years. The couple would have four children in total: Henriette, Anastasie, Georges and Marie Antoinette Virginie.

søndag den 22. september 2013

The Mantua Gown

The Mantua style appeared between the last years of the 17th century and the early part of the 18th century and was used by noble ladies as a formal day wear. At first it was considered a loose gown in comparison to the tightly laced gowns normally used at Louis XIV's court. Originally, this style was only worn as a casual robe under the name of a robe de chambre which was considered informal but still decent enough to receive guests in. At this point it was more a robe than an actual dress. So at some point the style developed and it became acceptable to wear it outside the comforts of your private apartments.

When the Mantua began to be seen around court it opened up for a new opportunity to show off the stomacher beneath it - and everyone knows that that means you could spend more on having your stomacher decorated! This was a development in itself because originally the bodice had been completely closed. The sleeves ended at the elbows (just like it did with men's banyans). What sets this style apart is the trend to drape the skirt back and in this way reveal the petticoat completely. This also meant that more volume would be added to the area around the hips. As can be seen on the drawing of Comtesse de Mailly beneath the Mantua was sewn close to the stomacher and no longer hung as a long coat - it had made the transformation into a dress acceptable everywhere.
One of the reasons as to why it became popular is that it offered the ladies of the court an alternative to the otherwise very stiff and formal style normally worn at court. More over, this style did not require the bodice to be enforced by whalebone or the like making it much more comfortable. In the 1730's the skirt was still draped up and pinned to the back but a minor train had also been added.

The trend became so widespread that a trade was even created for the sole purpose of making mantuas: a Mantua maker who was normally a woman. The fact that it was mainly produced by women was completely new in 18th century France. It is quite possible that the name "Mantua" comes from the Italian city of the same name which was renowned for its high quality silk.


Billedresultat for mantua gown
Comtesse de Mailly in a mantua


Mantua back
The back clearly chows how the skirt is draped back and pinned up
(the Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Silver embroidered blue damask court mantua (an open fronted gown with an elaborate train), made between about 1730-40.
Beautifully embroidered Mantua (National Museum of Wales)


Marie Luisa of Parma

Peacock Princess

Joely Richardson portrays Marie Antoinette in "The Affair of the Necklace" from 2001 and wears this gown on one of the movie posters.
Champagne coloured satin makes out the main fabric and is only interrupted by the pattern on the bodice. The emerald green is used to shape a peacock on each side of the bodice - quite an interesting detail which is not seen that often. Another dominating material is lace which has not only been applied generously to the sleeves but also makes the neckline very different from most other movies about the French court. It would almost seem that the lace is cut into leave-shaped pieces and then sewn onto the chosen parts of the dress. Also, it looks as if tulle has been used to enforce the lace and perhaps add more volume. The split between the two folds of the bodice reveals a slightly embroidered piece with golden birds. Also a brooch has been pinned to the neckline's lace and if you look closely a drop-pearl can just be made out among all the satin.

lørdag den 21. september 2013

The Breakfast Room

This room was used by Louis XV as his large study but it was different during the time of Louis XIV when it was smaller and divided. It was given its' present name because Napoleon had his breakfast in this room - it was also him who ordered the current panelling. There is a large clock in the room, a so-called Temple clock, which consists of lapis lazuli, jasper and different types of marbles. A painting of "Nymph presenting a horn of plenty to Amalthea" by Noël Coypel was originally placed in the Trianon-sur-Bois but has been relocated. The overall style is very that of the 19th century which was far simpler than the sumptuous rococo and baroque.




The Mirror Cabinet

Louis XIV counted this the last room of his private apartments while he stayed there. The Sun King used it as his council room. It would later serve as Marie-Louise's, Napoleon's second wife, drawing room. Louis-Philippe brought it back to its' original purpose when he decided to use it as a council room too. While the panelling are original all the furniture was acquired during Napoleon since the original furniture was sold off during the revolution. The silk used for the curtains and the furniture was allegedly ordered for Marie Antoinette's private apartments at the Château de Compiègne. All of the chairs were delivered by Jacob Desmalter in 1805 who used fabric prints from l'ancien regieme. Like the Hall of Mirrors this room was distinguished by the use of mirrors which was considered a great luxury because mirrors were very difficult and expensive to produce.






The Music Salon

Louis XIV used this as an antechamber where he would take his dinner. This salon can boast of having some of the oldest panels of the Grand Trianon which means that they are the ones that Louis XIV himself ordered and saw. It was in this room that musicians would play for the King which where the salon derives its' name. When Napoleon took over the Grand Trianon it was made into a room for his officers while Louis-Philippe converted it into a billiard room - the billiard table itself is from 1830. The candelabras' are decorated with vases painted with black lacquer.
There are two vases between these two candelabras and they both pay homage to the Classical motifs that were all the rage after the Revolution; motifs from the Odyssey and the Iliad are used to decorate them.



The Music Room


The Louis-Philippe Family Room

Located on the right wing of the Grand Trianon this room was usually two separate rooms but the wall between them were struck down by Louis-Philippe who wanted to create a spacious living room for his family. The dominating colours were an attempt to imitate the East with the intricate patterns and bright colours. This style continues in two pedestals lacquered with Chinese varnish and provided by Goudel et Cie in 1839. There are two mahogany tables in this room - both by Jacob Desmalter who made them in 1837 - and these were used by the princesses who would place their needlework in the drawers when retiring for the night. Among the paintings on the walls Venus, Mercury and the four elements are celebrated; these were all ordered in 1688. One of the walls has almost been completely covered in the same fabric used for the furniture.









du Barry in Black

Gladys George wears this amazing gown as Madame du Barry in the 1938-edition of "Marie Antoinette".
Black was an unusual colour for someone who was not in mourning but then again Madame du Barry was something of a Versailles rebel. The black fabric looks very lush so perhaps it is velvet? The large golden decorations are embroidered as are the grey areas (mainly on the petticoat). Some parts of the dress seemed to have been adorned with pearls in the midst of a golden grid pattern.
Golden tulle has been sewn onto the sleeves and the neckline creating a nice transition between the dark fabric and the bare arms underneath. Notice that the bodice has been embroidered in a way to make the waistline seem smaller which was actually a very popular fashion trend and still is.

Marie's Strawberry Gown


Worn in both a dinner scene and a church scene by Kirsten Dunst as Marie Antoinette.
I have given this post its' name due to the lovely, small strawberries that makes out the motif on the white main fabric - notice that their leaves are blue! This blue colour is also used for the pleaded ribbons that adorns the edge of the neckline, the hem of the bodice's front "flaps" and all the way down the skirt itself. Her velvet neck ribbon is a slightly darker tone but goes just fine with the overall colour tones. And her prayer book happens to be baby blue as well. Coincidence? I think not.

The sharp red gloves seems like an odd contrast at first sight by when you look closer it is really just a more "pang" version of the strawberries' colour. Notice that the gloves does not cover the fingers but only the palm - and they are lined with blue satin as well. White lace has not only been used at the sleeves (which is as good as standard) but is also accompanying the pleaded, blue ribbon and gives the neckline a more ruffled look. I love how the white pearls in her hands goes perfectly with everything else in this feminine outfit.
The second  photo reveals even more details than the first. First of all the gloves are embroidered with blue (surprise) flowers edged with silver thread. Secondly, a round diamond is attached to the very top of the bodice on the left side.


Metallic Majesty

Jason Schwartzman portrays Louis XVI in "Marie Antoinette" in which he wears this costume in several scenes. The most dominating feature is the metallic blue coat and the matching trousers. The colour is enough in itself which could be why there is no embroidery on the coat as is
custom. Large baby blue buttons dominates the inner seam instead. The coat is lined with what appears to be white silk or satin. Also, the lace at the end of the sleeves are not as dominating as in other costumes worn by Louis.
In the dinner scene (top photos to the left) he is wearing the royal blue sash but has chosen to discard of it in the more private settings of a gaming night with his brothers, sisters-in-law and wife. The waist-coat makes a nice contrast to the sharp blue colour with its cream-coloured base and golden embroideries. The waist-coat is cut in a manner to make the lace at the neck really come to its' own right. I love the little detail with the pocket watch on the second last photo. On both the top and the bottom photo (two different scenes, by the way) the King is wearing a pendant in the star-shape of an order. The white enamelled star is hanging from a ribbon which matches the royal blue sash perfectly.


fredag den 20. september 2013

Coronation Gown

Another one of Kirsten Dunst's gowns from Marie Antoinette (2006) - there were over 60 so prepare for many more.
The dress itself is sewn in white satin which has been used for both the bodice, the sleeves, the petticoat and the skirt. The sleeves ends in champagne coloured tulle pinned with a large bow on each arm - of course the gloves are of white satin too. If you look closely at the bows you will see that they are made of striped fabric and not just plan coloured satin. The bodice is elaborately decorated with a flowery motif consisting of golden paliettes. The edge of the bodice and the neckline has been trimmed with the same champagne tulle as the sleeves. This decoration has been applied to the skirt as well and all the way down the golden flowers glitters only interrupted by the large bows - all edged with tulle.



Friendship, Romance or Dependency?

It was commonplace to hear rumours about homosexual relationships among the courtiers even when the court was in exile after the revolution.

Marie Joséphine of Savoy, who had married the Comte de Provence and thus became the sister-in-law of Louis XVI, had a very intimate relationship with one of her ladies-in-waiting Marguerite de Gourbillon. Whether it was actually a lesbian is unknown, perhaps it was just gossip like the case with Marie Antoinette and the Princesse de Lamballe. Nevertheless, the Comte de Provence was far from pleased about this relationship and demanded that his brother, the King, had Madame de Gourbillon be removed from his wife's service. Apparently, the Comte was of the opinion that his wife was being completely dominated by her lady-in-waiting. In the end he was successful when Marguerite de Gourbillon was exiled to Lille in 1789.

Marie Joséphine

When the court went into exile the two friends met up again in Marie Joséphine's home country of Savoy. In 1799 the would-be Queen of France had to leave for Mitau where a wedding was to take place and her husband wanted her there too (the wedding was that of Marie Thérèse, daughter of the beheaded King and Queen). There was one little demand though: Madame de Gourbillon could not go with her. Apparently, Marie Joséphine was not pleased with this and wrote directly to the Russian Tzar for permission to take her friend with her, since Mitau was Russian territory. When no answer ever came the two simply set off together anyway. However, their journey was dramatically stopped upon arrival at Mitau and Marguerite de Gourbillon was pulled out of the carriage. This was not the scandal in question, though there has already been a few!

Marie Joséphine must have been a will-strong woman and she certainly would not take that sort of behaviour. When she was finally admitted to court she publicly refused to change out of her travelling gown until her friend was allowed to rejoin her company. Nor would she stay in her exquisite rooms. The Tzar was not pleased about this and plainly refused to grant her her wishes, so Marie Joséphine tried a different tactic. She then refused to leave her rooms where she was alone with a bottle of liqueur! The scandal was huge and everyone talked about it. After all she was the first in line to be the future Queen of France. Madame de Gourbillon was not allowed to stay with her friend but she did manage to convince the Tzar to sent the Comte away from Russia which happened in 1801.

It has been suggested that it was Marguerite de Gourbillon who had encourage Marie Joséphine to begin drinking which was then the reason for why the Comte would not approve of their friendship. One thing is for sure: their friendship was deep and perhaps Marie Joséphine was dependent on her friend who would even follow the Comte and Comtesse to England.

Twenty-Four Rays

http://blogs.princeton.edu/graphicarts/images/almanac%20royal3.jpg

The sun above (which is believed to be published by the Dutchman Carel Allard) takes advantage of the King's personal emblem, the sun, but not quite in the way that Louis XIV had imagined. The King is centred in the middle from where 24 sun rays shine out - each one is stating a crime committed by the King. The pamphlet is Dutch but was also translated into French; it was published after the War of the Spanish Succession which France had taken part of.

High and Mighty on Heels - Men's Shoes

Originally, high heels were made for men and was especially popular at the court of Louis XIV who himself adored the style. He actually had a special type of high heels named after him (the Louis heel) which concave on the heel itself to create an elegant curve. And since Louis loved extravagance his heels were the best of the best. Often towering over five inches above the ground the heels themselves were often decorated with detailed battle scenes! The King made it clear to his court that he was to have the highest heels and no one could wear any as much as a millimetre taller than his.
Red heels were considered especially attractive and Louis XIV quickly made his mark here too. It was only the King himself and those who were in high standing with him who were allowed to wear red heels. One of the reasons for why red was so special was that it was very expensive to colour something that perfect red tone - thus red heels became a symbol of prestige. However, the King's fondness of high heels were not because he was particularly short. On the contrary Louis XIV was considered slightly taller than average height with his 1 meter and 75 centimetres (5,9 inches).

All kind of materials were used for the shoes for example silk, brightly coloured leather and brocades. One thing that remained constant through Louis XIV and Louis XV's reigns was the dominating large buckles on men's shoes. These were either silver or gold and could be very intricately decorated. It was very common to use gemstones - both genuine and look-a likes - to decorate the buckles further. Such a look-a like could be rhinestones which (as the name indicates) were brought to Paris from the Rhine and was a kind of crystals. Paste was also used for decorations despite that we would never consider it very extravagant. However, at the time it was considered just as beautiful because the paste jewels would sparkle especially much when hit by light - also they could be fashioned in all kind of shapes. Samuel Pepys wrote in his diary on 22 January 1660: "This day I began to put buckles on my shoes." The buckles were considered important enough to be sold separate from the shoe itself - the idea was that the buckle was to be used for more than one pair of shoes. Normally buckles would be delivered in special caskets, just like jewellery! It was in the 1720's that the buckles became larger than normally and their period of glory would be between 1760-1780.


Close-up of Louis XIV in his state robes - notice the red heels!


Shoe buckles, late 18th century, French, metal, rhinestone
Made in France in the latter part of the 18th century


onsdag den 18. september 2013

The Pompadour Hair Style

You can probably guess who this one is named after, so I am just going to leave it at that. It was popular among both men and women and even made a comeback in the 20th century. The style is simply achieved by making the hair stand up and sway slightly out from the forehead. The hair on each side of the head is pinned up and gathered with the hair of the Pompadour itself. At the court of Versailles it was popular to use bear grease to make the hairdo stay in place. Often ornaments were used to decorate the hairstyle like diamonds or flowers.
It was quite normal to have your hair curled behind the head but the hairdo in the front was tall but still simpler than most hairdos found at Versailles.




This is a very small version of it

The Fontange Hairstyle

This particular hairstyle was named after one of Louis XIV's mistresses, the Duchesse de Fontagne. It is also known as the "frelange". It became popular in the 1680's and was in fashion both in France and in England. Like every other element in fashion this evolved from the moment it became popular. At first it was merely a simply arrangement of curls at the top of the head gathered by ribbons (anyone who has ever tried to tie their hair with ribbons know of difficult this is). The story goes that Madame de Fontange was out hunting when her hairdo was suddenly ruined and since loose hair was not permitted she quickly gathered her hair with a ribbon from her dress.
Later it became taller and far more elaborate curling were all the rage. To make the hairdo even higher the hair was often tied around a wire "cap" placed on top of the head and often false curls were added - sometimes made of horsehair. Also, it was custom to wear a trimmed linen cap with this hairdo which consequently also became known as the "Fontange". Actually you might say that this is the similar endeavour to create as high a hair silhouette as possible just like Marie Antoinette would do a century later. There was an annoying problem with this fashion however. As the height of the hair grew it became more and more difficult to keep the pile of hair stable and it would often slide off to one side. This resulted in an extreme use of starch and even more wire to keep it in place.

One of the "sub-categories" of this fashion was the Fontange à la Sultane where a veil would be worn from the great height of the hair. Some women had two curly locks hanging on each side of the head.

Queen Mary II of England
Head03
This is a fontange à la sultane
Fontange of 1713

Different variations